Dynamiques Identitaires En Milieu De Travail Plurilingue et Multiethnique: Etudes De Cas De Jeunes Professionnels Quebecois et Suisses Romands

By Veillette, Josianne | Ethnologies, Spring 2005 | Go to article overview

Dynamiques Identitaires En Milieu De Travail Plurilingue et Multiethnique: Etudes De Cas De Jeunes Professionnels Quebecois et Suisses Romands


Veillette, Josianne, Ethnologies


A partir de l'idee que les individualites sont en grande partie tributaires du milieu dont elles sont issues, cet article souhaite apporter une reflexion sur le jeu entre les groupes d'appartenance et la formation identitaire, en particulier sur les strategies mises en oeuvre par de jeunes Quebecois francophones et Suisses romands pour s'integrer a un milieu professionnel qui offre un contexte d'echanges interculturels et promeut des politiques officielles en faveur du plurilinguisme et du multiculturalisme. Le Canada et la Suisse connaissent des rapports de force entre groupes linguistiques majoritaire et minoritaires qui agissent sur les dynamiques relationnelles entre les communautes. Les jeunes integrent dans leur formation identitaire des caracteristiques de leur collectivite, mais ils connaissent aussi des experiences personnelles qui forment leur individualite. Des etudes de cas permettent de saisir leur facon de concevoir leur experience de travail dans un milieu plurilingue et multiethnique, et demontrent que les dynamiques de groupes influencent fortement l'environnement de travail.

Starting with the idea that individualities are, to a large extent, dependent on the community from which they arise, this article has been designed as a reflection on the interplay between membership groups and identity formation, especially with respect to the strategies used by young Quebec Francophones and French-speaking Swiss to integrate a professional environment offering a context of intercultural exchanges and promoting official policies that encourage plurilingualism and multiculturalism. Canada and Switzerland both experience power struggles between majority and minority linguistic groups, struggles that impact upon the relational dynamics between the communities in question. Young people integrate characteristics of their community into their identity formation, but personal experiences serve to form their individuality as well. Case studies enable us to grasp how they view their own experience of working in a plurilingual and multiethnic environment and demonstrate that group dynamics strongly influence the working environment.

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Sensibles au milieu dans lequel ils sont eduques et au sein duquel ils progressent, les jeunes connaissent une realite fort complexe et ambigue qui engendre des ajustements et des adaptations a des milieux divers. Ceci peut etre notamment le cas au cours de l'experience que les jeunes acquierent sur le marche du travail. A cette periode de la vie correspond aussi celle ou ces individus font leurs debuts sur un marche de l'emploi souvent precaire et changeant, susceptible de provoquer certaines remises en question personnelles, mais aussi de developper une grande capacite d'adaptation chez plusieurs individus.

Malgre l'actuelle instabilite du marche de l'emploi, il apparait toutefois que le travail demeure pour les jeunes un moyen important de se definir et de s'identifier a autrui. Selon G. Fournier et B. Bourassa, il semble en effet qu'il represente encore, pour l'ensemble des jeunes, << un repere identitaire important, un moyen privilegie d'insertion dans le monde adulte, un lieu pour constituer des reseaux sociaux, [et] un cadre a l'interieur duquel s'organisent les choix de vie et le quotidien >> (Fournier et Bourassa 2000 : 14). Ainsi, non seulement le travail est-il une voie privilegiee pour s'inserer dans le systeme social, mais il repond en outre a la quete de reconnaissance sociale par le statut qu'il procure ; il comble les besoins d'appartenance et d'association et correspond a une facon de construire et d'affirmer son identite (Fournier et Bourassa 2000).

Mais qui dit identite, dit articulation entre heritage socioculturel et realite immediate. L'heritage socioculturel est defini ici comme la transmission intergenerationnelle de l'ensemble des realisations materielles d'une collectivite et des ideologies, des croyances et des representations sociales qui structurent les rapports sociaux et favorisent la coherence entre les membres. …

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