Parenting Practices and School Dropout: A Longitudinal Study

By Blondal, Kristjana S.; Adalbjarnardottir, Sigrun | Adolescence, Winter 2009 | Go to article overview

Parenting Practices and School Dropout: A Longitudinal Study


Blondal, Kristjana S., Adalbjarnardottir, Sigrun, Adolescence


When adolescents drop out of school, the results are psychosocially and economically costly, for both the individual and society. As our modern knowledge-based societies increasingly rely on a highly skilled labor force, young people without upper secondary education are more vulnerable than ever before. They have fewer work opportunities, and are less likely to return to education and training later in life, compared to those who finish school (e.g., Rumberger & Lamb, 2003). They also face a higher risk of various negative outcomes; they may be unemployed, live in poverty, have health problems, and engage in antisocial behavior (see Rumberger & Thomas, 2000).

In recent years the problem of school dropout has received increased attention. The European Union has proposed a common benchmark for the member states: by the year 2010, the early school-leaving rate should be no more than 10% in any given country (Council of the European Union, 2004). In the U.S. this problem has also been addressed nationally as one of the National Educational Goals adopted in 1990 (U. S. Department of Education, 1990). Moreover, in the federal reform plan, the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, all states are required to incorporate graduation rates into their accountability systems for high schools (U.S. Department of Education, 2002). In Iceland, where this study was conducted, the dropout problem is also of concern; currently the Icelandic government is presenting educational reforms that aim to reduce dropout (Upper Secondary School Act No. 92/2008).

The family has been recognized as one of the primary contributors to children's success at school (Rumberger, 1995). Studies of the family's influence on school dropout, however, have at least four important shortcomings. First, such studies tend to focus too strongly on structural characteristics, such as parents' socioeconomic status (SES). Second, studies examining parental influence on school success have mainly focused on the relationship between parental involvement in their child's education and academic achievement but seldom on school dropout. Third, findings about the relationship between parental involvement and school success have been inconsistent, and fourth, most studies on school dropout are cross-sectional. The purpose of this study was to explore more general aspects of parenting in relation to school dropout; we examine the relationship of both parental involvement and parenting style with school dropout. Moreover, we use a longitudinal design.

THE FAMILY AND EDUCATIONAL OUTCOMES

Research on family influences has been criticized for focusing on such structural characteristics as parents' socioeconomic status to explain children's school success and failure (e.g., Alexander, Entwisle, & Horsey, 1997). Findings consistently show that students in higher SES groups are academically more successful and less likely to drop out of school than students in lower SES groups (see McNeal, 1999; Rosenthal, 1998). These studies, however, provide little insight into what is occurring in family life that helps the students succeed at school (Davis-Kean, 2005). Studies in this area have also been criticized for using a narrow definition of parental support (see Jeynes, 2007).

Parental Involvement

Studies on the influence of parenting on school outcomes have mainly focused on specific parental practices such as involvement in their child's education, mostly in relation to academic achievement and rarely in relation to school dropout (McNeal, 1999; Rumberger, 1995). Common indicators of parental involvement include contacts between parents and school, parental involvement in school activities, parent-child communication about school, parental supervision involving homework, and parents' educational aspirations for their child (Fan & Chen, 2001; McNeal, 1999). Despite the many studies on parents' involvement and children's academic achievement, the nature of the relationship remains unclear (Jeynes, 2007; McNeal, i999). …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Parenting Practices and School Dropout: A Longitudinal Study
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.