Bearing the Burden: The Impact of Climate Change on Women and Men Is Not the Same. Women Are Increasingly More Vulnerable, Mainly Because They Represent the Majority of the World's Poor and Are Proportionally More Dependent on Threatened Natural Resources
HUMAN SECURITY, CLIMATE CHANGE AND WOMEN
BY IRENE DANKELMAN, Professor, Centre for Sustainable Management of Resources, Radboud University, Netherlands.
HUMAN SECURITY CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACT ON WOMEN SECURITY ASPECTS Security of Mortality/ * Mortality/ * Overall more Survival injury injury from women than men die different extreme or are injured weather events/ disasters Health * Increase in * Bearing the infectious burden of taking diseases care of the sick/ disabled * Physical and * Increase in mental stress mental stress * Loss of * Lack of access to medicinal plants/ reproductive health biodiversity services * Greater risk of HIV/AIDS due to early marriage, forced prostitution, sexual violence Security of Food Security * Harvests * Bearing the livelihood destroyed burden of more time, energy and budget requirements for food production and purchase * Agricultural * Stand in line for production humanitarian food changes/ drops distribution * Fish stocks * Increase in work decrease burden * Increase in calorie-deficiency and hunger Water * Lack of water * More time/energy Security needed to provide water for household/farm * Pollution and * Suffer from water salination water-related health problems * Flooding * Lack of biomass * More time and fuel energy needed to collect fuel Energy * Dysfunctioning * Increase in work Security hydropower burden * Disruption in * Inferior energy electricity sources--more supply indoor pollution Environmental * Environmental * Poorest women security processes and living in insecure services environments most jeopardized affected Shelter * Housing, * Limited land security infrastructure rights and services destroyed * Not included in land management * Decrease in mobility Economic * Decrease in * Women in informal security income generating sector most opportunities effected (eg, less credit) * Household expenses increase * Males migrate--more female-headed households Dignity Basic human * Triggers * Increase in rights violation of domestic violence basic human against women; rights suffering from wars/conflicts over resources Capacity * Lack of * Girls drop out of opportunities for school education and income generation * Little time for education/ training/income generation Participation * None or limited * Lack of involvement in participation in decision-making; climate change lack of negotiations, information; lack planning and of time activities * Women-specific priorities neglected HUMAN SECURITY COPING AND POLICY SECURITY ASPECTS ADAPTIVE OPPORTUNITIES FOR STRATEGIES BY WOMEN/MEN WOMEN Security of Mortality/ * Searching for * Gender specific Survival injury safe shelter/ and sensitive improving homes disaster risk reduction and preparedness * Disaster risk * Early warning reduction and systems preparedness by women's groups Health * Increase in * Access to tasks for family health care facilities, especially reproductive health services for women * Use of medicinal * Monitoring plants and health situation application of of most alternative vulnerable healing methods groups Security of Food Security * Adapting * Agricultural livelihood agricultural adaptation: mixed practices/ cropping, better switching to other suited crops/ crops/animals livestock * Saving food, * Affordable and seed and animals ecologically sound Agricultural inputs * Adapting to new * Nutritioning diet extension * Secure land rights for women * Credit and marketing facilities * Managing fish stocks for local fishing communities Water * Water havesting, * Safeguarding Security including affordable and rainwater safe drinking water * Purchasing water * Efficient from irrigation water-vendors technologies * Safe sanitation facilities * Preserving wetlands * Switching to * Providing fuel other energy sources, especially clean sustainable energy Energy * Use of * Providing and Security energy-saving training in using devices energy saving devices * Reforestation * Ecological restoration Environmental * Building more * Safe shelters security sturdy houses * Clean up and regeneration of environment * Forming advocacy groups Shelter * Building more * Safe shelters security sturdy houses and sturdy homes * Seeking * Land and shelter/migration housing rights for women Economic * Saving expenses * Affordable and security or money for lean reliable credit time and financial facilities for women * Selling of * Providing assets and alternative services livelihood options * Alternative * Ensuring income generating women's access to activities climate change funding and technologies Dignity Basic human * Social networks * Counselling and rights and groups legal services * Defending women's rights Capacity * Self-training, * Ensuring support groups and education, networks particularly of girls during/after disasters * Skills training * Environmental regeneration Participation * Organization * Access to information * Advocacy * Ensuring women's participation in planning/ decision-making/ climate change and mechanisms * Participation * Involving men in gender training * Generate and use sex disaggregated data…