Effect of Early Life Exposure to Air Pollution on Development of Childhood Asthma

By Clark, Nina Annika; Demers, Paul A. et al. | Environmental Health Perspectives, February 2010 | Go to article overview

Effect of Early Life Exposure to Air Pollution on Development of Childhood Asthma


Clark, Nina Annika, Demers, Paul A., Karr, Catherine J., Koehoorn, Mieke, Lencar, Cornel, Tamburic, Lillian, Brauer, Michael, Environmental Health Perspectives


BACKGROUND: There is increasing recognition of the importance of early environmental exposures in the development of childhood asthma. Outdoor air pollution is a recognized asthma trigger, but it is unclear whether exposure influences incident disease. We investigated the effect of exposure to ambient air pollution in utero and during the first year of life on risk of subsequent asthma diagnosis in a population-based nested case-control study.

METHODS: We assessed all children born in southwestern British Columbia in 1999 and 2000 (n = 37,401) for incidence of asthma diagnosis up to 3--4 years of age using outpatient and hospitalization records. Asthma cases were age-and sex-matched to five randomly chosen controls from the eligible cohort. We estimated each individual's exposure to ambient air pollution for the gestational period and first year of life using high-resolution pollution surfaces derived from regulatory monitoring data as well as land use regression models adjusted for temporal variation. We used logistic regression analyses to estimate effects of carbon monoxide, nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, particulate matter [less than or equal to] 10 [micro]m and [less than or equal to] 2.5 [micro]m in aerodynamic diameter ([PM.sub.10] and [PM.sub.2.5]), ozone, sulfur dioxide, black carbon, woodsmoke, and proximity to roads and point sources on asthma diagnosis.

RESULTS: A total of 3,482 children (9%) were classified as asthma cases. We observed a statistically significantly increased risk of asthma diagnosis with increased early life exposure to CO, NO, [NO.sub.2], [PM.sub.10], [SO.sub.2], and black carbon and proximity to point sources. Traffic-related pollutants were associated with the highest risks: adjusted odds ratio = 1.08 (95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.12) for a 10-[micro]g/[m.sup.3] increase of NO, 1.12 (1.07-1.17) for a 10-[micro]g/[m.sup.3] increase in [NO.sub.2] and 1.10 (1.06-1.13) for a 100-[micro]g/[m.sup.3] increase in CO. These data support the hypothesis that early childhood exposure to air pollutants plays a role in development of asthma.

KEY WORDS: administrative data, air pollution, asthma, children's health, in utero, respiratory, traffic. Environ Health Perspect 118:284-290 (2010). doi:10.1289/ehp.09009l6 available via http://ax.doi.org/ [Online 8 October 2009]

**********

Asthma is the most common chronic disease in childhood [World Health Organization (WHO) 2006]. Its prevalence is high and has generally increased worldwide over the latter part of the 20th century (Asher et al. 2006; WHO 2006). Although explanations for relatively rapid changes in prevalence are unknown, environmental factors, independently and jointly with genetic factors, are thought to be responsible. Although air pollution has been consistently shown to exacerbate existing asthma (English et al. 1999; Lipsett et al. 1997; McConnell et al. 1999, 2006; Nicolai et al. 2003; Norris et al. 1999), there are few investigations of asthma onset and air pollution despite the hypothesized link with exposure to outdoor air pollution (Institute of Medicine 2000; von Mutius 2000).

Earlier studies have generally relied on simple measures of traffic proximity and density to estimate exposure and have not found an association between air pollution and asthma incidence (Ciccone et al. 1998; English et al. 1999; Wjst et al. 1993). More recent studies have used modeling approaches that provide high-resolution estimates of neighborhood-scale variations in air pollution. Several studies using this approach have observed increases in asthma incidence or asthma symptoms for children exposed to higher levels of traffic-related air pollution (Brauer et al. 2002, 2007; Gauderman et al. 2005; McConnell et al. 2006; Morgenstern et al. 2008; Zmirou et al. 2004). However, not all such studies of this type have reported consistent associations (Gehring et al. 2002; Zmirou et al. 2004).

Pre- and postbirth exposures to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) are independently associated with increased asthma incidence (Haberg et al. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Effect of Early Life Exposure to Air Pollution on Development of Childhood Asthma
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.