The Unfrozen North

By Rouse, Andy | Geographical, November 2009 | Go to article overview

The Unfrozen North


Rouse, Andy, Geographical


[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

The archipelago of Norwegian islands known as Svalbard lies in the Arctic, halfway between begins to melt, and temperatures the sea ice surrounding them Norway and the North Pole. As on land continue to rise, climate scientists are trying to work out what this could mean for the islands and the rest of the world

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

PREVIOUS SPREAD: Burgerbukta bay, part of the Hornsund fjord on Spitsbergen island. Spitsbergen is one of a group of islands that make up the Svalbard archipelago. The Norwegian islands, whose name means 'cold shores', lie in the Arctic Ocean approximately halfway between mainland Norway and the North Pole, and cover an area of more than 62,000 square kilometres (making the archipelago roughly a quarter the size of the UK). Around two thirds of Spitsbergen's land mass is buried under ice, although this is decreasing due to climate change. Officially discovered by the Dutch explorer Willem Barents in 1596 while he was searching for a northeast passage to Asia, the area went on to become a centre for whaling during the 17th and 18th centuries, before mining and scientific research became the main activities during the 19th and 20th centuries. Today, more than 2,000 people live on the island-a mixture of Norwegians and Russians, largely involved in mining; ABOVE: Nelsonoya or Nelson Island (on the left), a volcanic plug in the far north of the archipelago, off the coast of the second-largest island, Nordaustlandet. Volcanic plugs form when molten lava hardens inside the neck of a volcano. Erosion then removes the surrounding rock, leaving the hard lava as a freestanding object. The island is named after Captain Horatio Nelson, who was a 14-year-old member of Captain Constantine Phipps's crew when he set off for the North Pole in 1773. Phipps didn't reach the pole, but he was the first European to describe the polar bear, one of which tried to attack Nelson when he climbed off the boat and onto the ice. He narrowly managed to escape the bear, thanks to help from the crew, but was apparently heard to shout,'Never mind, do but let me get a blow at this devil with the butt-end of my musket, and we shall have him'; RIGHT: ice cliffs at Austfonna ('eastern glacier'), Norway's largest (and the world's third-largest) ice cap, found in the centre of Nordaustlandet; FAR RIGHT: Svalbard from the air. The landscape is characterised by rugged mountains with steep flanks, as well as large, glacially eroded fjord systems. The highest mountain is Newtontoppen at more than 1,700 metres high

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

OPPOSITE PAGE: Fuglefjorden (Bird Fjord), a small fjord in the north of Spitsbergen. Average temperatures in Svalbard are around 5[degrees]C during summer and-7[degrees]C during winter (although temperatures recorded at Svalbard airport have increased by 1. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited article

The Unfrozen North
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this article
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.