Some Problems of Quantitative Evaluation of the State of Social-Economic systems/Socioekonominiu Sistemu Bukles Kiekybinio Ivertinimo Problematika

By Ginevicius, Romualdas | Business: Theory and Practice, June 2009 | Go to article overview

Some Problems of Quantitative Evaluation of the State of Social-Economic systems/Socioekonominiu Sistemu Bukles Kiekybinio Ivertinimo Problematika


Ginevicius, Romualdas, Business: Theory and Practice


1. Ivadas

Mus supantis pasaulis vis sudetingeja, dinamiskeja, skestame informacijos srautuose. Tokioje nevienareiksmiskoje situacijoje vis sunkiau priimti teisingus sprendimus. Mokslas ir praktika visa laika ieskojo budu, kaip supaprastintai atvaizduoti tikrove, sumazinti sprendziamu problemu kompleksiskuma. Iseiti pasiule sistemu teorija, kuri leido sudetingus darinius, reiskinius, procesus ir pan. nagrineti ivairiais aspektais, bet sistemiskai, t. y. ivertinant ju sudetiniu daliu tarpusavio rysius (Martin 2008; Mulej 2007; Bailey 2006; Troncale 2006; Samuelson 2006; Rapoport 1978; Mlakar, Mulej 2008; Schwaninger 2007). Nors tokie tyrimai vyrauja daugelyje mokslo ir praktikos sriciu, taciau bendros metodologijos, visuotinai pripazintu analizes metodu ir priemoniu dar nesukurta. Iki siol aktualia moksline problema islieka ne tik sistemu tyrimo budai, bet ir pati ju samprata (Staciokas, Rimas 2004).

Esminis klausimas sistemu teorijoje yra pacios sistemos apibrezimas (Bertalanffy 1973). Literaturos saltiniu analize rodo, kad nera visuotinai pripazinto savokos "sistema" tiek supratimo, tiek ir jos apibrezimo. Ji dazniausiai nusakoma tokiu terminu, kaip "elementas", "rysys" arba "saveika", "visuma", "struktura" ir pan., ivairiais dariniais.

Sistemos samprata objektyviai atskleidzia zodzio "sistema", atkeliavusio is graiku kalbos, aiskinimas--visuma, sudaryta is daliu; sandara; junginys. Galima aptikti desimtis sistemos apibrezimu (Zukovskis 2007). Tokios ivairoves priezastys kelios. Pirma, akcentuojami skirtingi sistemos, kaip fenomeno, bruozai; antra, ivertinami ne visi sistema apibreziantys aspektai, t. y. apibrezimams truksta issamumo; trecia, apibrezimas perkraunamas nereikalingais, isvestiniais, vienas kita dubliuojanciais pozymiais. Siekiant isvengti siu trukumu, reikia dar karta ivardinti budingas sistemu savybes.

Is sistemos sampratos, kad tai yra visuma, sudaryta is daliu, kyla daugelis klausimu: kas tai per dalys; kokie ju santykiai; ka reiskia tvirtinimas, kad jos sudaro visuma ir pan.

Bendroji sistemu teorija sako, kad pagrindine sistemos dalis yra jos elementas, kuris yra maziausias ir nagrinejamu poziuriu nedalomas (Lydeka 1998, 1999a; Simanauskas 1997; Motuziene, Pyrantiene 2002). Sistemoje, viena vertus, jis atlieka specifine funkcija, kuri leidzia jam jungtis i elementu darinius, antra vertus, turi bendra savybe, kuri leidzia jam tiesiogiai arba funkcionuojant minetu elementu darinyje prisideti prie bendro sistemos tikslo siekimo. Remiantis siomis bendrosiomis savybemis elementus ar ju darinius galima sujungti i viena visuma. Tiek is specifiniu, tiek is bendruju elementu savybiu isplaukia ju saveikos pobudis. Ji yra kryptinga, padedanti siekti bendra sistemos tiksla. Saveikos kryptingumas uztikrinamas tik atitinkamai sutvarkius elementu ar ju dariniu tarpusavio santykius, t. y. strukturizuojant.

Ivertinus visa tai, tinkamiausiu butu galima laikyti toki sistemos apibrezima: "tai strukturizuota tam tikru tarpusavyje susietu elementu ar ju dariniu visuma" (Simanauskas 1997). Ismetus kai kuriuos perteklinius zodzius (pavyzdziui, savoka "strukturizuota" apima ir elementu dariniu sudaryma), galima butu pasiulyti toki sistemos apibrezima: tai strukturizuota saveikaujanciu elementu visuma. Savoka "visuma" elementu aibe isskiria is aplinkos arba aukstesnio lygmens sistemos ir kartu nubrezia nagrinejamos sistemos ribas; savoka "saveikaujanciu" reiskia, kad sia aibe sudaro tik tarpusavyje susije elementai; savoka "strukturizuota" rodo, kad sistemos elementai ar ju dariniai issidesto hierarchiskai ir kad ju saveika padeda siekti bendra sistemos tiksla.

Matant gausybe tyrimu, skirtu ivairiems sistemu aspektams nagrineti, kyla klausimas--koks yra sistemu pazinimo tikslas? Visu pirma reikia atsiminti, ka jos atspindi. Jeigu tai socialine sistema--tai ivairiai saveikaujanciu zmoniu kompleksai--seimos, religines bendruomenes, partijos ir pan. Jeigu tai socioekonomine sistema, tai ji isreiskia tam tikra kieki medziagu, mechanizmu, informacijos ir kitu istekliu, integruotu i bendra socialine sistema. …

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