Where Vocational Rehabilitation Consumers Work According to the Standard Occupational Classification System

By Boutin, Daniel L. | The Journal of Rehabilitation, July-September 2010 | Go to article overview

Where Vocational Rehabilitation Consumers Work According to the Standard Occupational Classification System


Boutin, Daniel L., The Journal of Rehabilitation


By incorporating the Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) into case service documentation with the start of the 2007 fiscal year (FY) on October 1, 2006, the Rehabilitation Service Administration's (RSA) vocational rehabilitation (VR) program joined other federal agencies in using a standardized approach to classifying occupational information (Levine & Salmon, 1999; RSA, 2006). As a result, the SOC replaces the outdated Department of Labor's Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT) as the formal system to classify the type of occupation achieved by VR consumers (Mariani, 1999; U.S. Department of Labor, 1991). Since the concept of employment is central to many rehabilitation practitioners and people with disabilities (Fraser, Vandergoot, Thomas, & Wagner, 2004; Martz & Xu, 2008), it is important to explore and describe this baseline occupational information for consumers of the VR program and the general United States population. Preceding this analysis is a brief history on classifying occupations followed by an overview of the SOC.

Classifying Occupations

The first occupational classification system in the United States was developed with the 1850 Census of Population (Levine & Salmon, 1999; Levine, Salmon, & Weinberg, 1999). The government surveyed the population for the "profession, occupation, or trade of each person over 15 years of age" (U.S. Census Bureau, 2009a, Schedule no. 1 section). From this one question to 23 million residents across 30 states, 322 occupations were identified including cotton-gin maker, drover, lath maker, rag collector, and stevedore (Levine et al., U.S. Census Bureau, 2009c). Eventually, the census surveys included not just one, but multiple questions regarding the nature of work performed (U.S. Census Bureau, 2009b). The U.S. government has since been collecting occupational data on its residents for almost 160 years.

Following the rapid expansion of U.S. manufacturing in the early decades of the 20th century, a Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) system was created to systematically organize expanding industries (Levine et al.). An important aspect of the SIC was that it conformed to the existing industrial structure of the United States (Pearce, 2009). For example, industries were classified by a four-digit code and represented agriculture, communication, construction, electric, finance, fisheries, forestry, gas, insurance, manufacturing, mining, real estate, retail, sanitary services, services, transportation, and wholesale trade. The most recent version of the SIC was hierarchically sectioned into divisions (e.g., Division I: Services), major groups (e.g., Major Group 83: Social Services), and industrial groups (e.g., Industrial Group 8331 : Job Training and Vocational Rehabilitation Services) (U.S. Department of Labor, 2009). The SIC was used for many decades until it began to show signs of stress as the nation shifted to a service-oriented economy with the introduction of new industries such as information technology, healthcare, and high-tech manufacturing (Levine et al., 1999). In addition, the 1994 North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) opened up trade with Canada and Mexico, signaling the need for an international industrial classification system.

In 1997, the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) replaced the ailing SIC with the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) (Murphy, 1998). The NAICS is hierarchically organized by groups of industries with similar production processes and can be individualized by participating countries to meet their own needs (Levine et al.). NAICS' six-digit classification codes allows for greater flexibility in structure than the SIC (Murphy). The highest level of aggregation represents industrial sectors (e.g., information), followed by subsectors (e.g., broadcasting and telecommunications), industry groups (e.g., radio and television), international industries (e. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Where Vocational Rehabilitation Consumers Work According to the Standard Occupational Classification System
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Author Advanced search

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.