The Role of Urban Tourism in the Strategical Development of Brasov Area
Popescu, Ruxandra Irina, Corbos, Razvan-Andrei, Theoretical and Empirical Researches in Urban Management
1. THEORETICAL APPROACHES REGARDING THE URBAN TOURISM
In the contemporary society, the tourism represents through its content and role, a distinctive domain of activity, an essential component of the economical and social life for a growing number of world countries, countries that see in their own touring potential a real wealth generator.
The tourism is considered first of all a recreation form besides other activities and formulas of spending the leisure time (Holloway, 1994); it implies the temporary move of people through destinations situated outside the regular residence and activities deployed during the time spent at those destinations (Witt, Brooke and Buckley, 1991). Also in most of the situations, it implies the performance of some expenses with impact upon the economies of the visited areas.
So, the tourism is presented as a complex activity, with a multitude of fronts, with significant economical loading, positioned at the intersection of more branches and sectors of economy; all these find their reflection in the variety of points of view regarding the content of tourism concept and the adjacent concepts (Holloway, 1994).
W. Hunziker (1940) defines the tourism through the assembly of relations and phenomena which result from the travel and abidance of people outside the residence place, as long as the abidance and travel are not motivated by a permanent settlement or a lucrative activity.
In the last period, the touring activity became a strategic factor of economical recovery of some regions and countries, even in the conditions of the economical crisis, in 2008 there were 924 million international tourists (representing an annual increase of 2%), being one of the economical activities which registered positive increases (Serrano Barquin, Hernandez Moreno and Serrano Barquin, 2009).
1.1. Theoretical concepts regarding urban tourism
The urban tourism is one of the main factors of economical increase of European cities (Delitheou, Vinieratou and Touri, 2010). The urban tourism is an essential aspect of the correlation of internal and external demands. This is because the tourists are not only visitors, they are equally, parents and friends visiting the locals and of course there are the locals themselves.
So the tourism must be seen as a system which contains both offer factors, and demand factors. Within this system, the demand factors are: international touring markets, local touring markets, attractions, touring facilities and services offered by residents (World Tourism Organization, 1994).
In his book "Urban Tourism: what Attracts Visitors to Cities?", Judith Reutsche (2006) analyzes the relation between tourism and urban areas. She makes a difference between the primary, secondary and additional elements of the urban tourism. The primary elements represent the main reasons that attract tourists to visit the cities. They consider:
a. Places for deploying the activities:
* cultural facilities: museums and art galleries; theatres and movie houses; business centers; other attractions;
* sport facilities: covered or outdoor;
* entertainment facilities: casinos and lotteries; organized events; festivals.
b. Places for spending the leisure time: historical boulevards; buildings; old statues and
monuments; parks and green areas; waters.
Secondary elements (adaptation; catering facilities; shopping; markets) along with the additional ones (accessibility; transport and car parks; touring information (maps, indicators, guides)) are also very important for the success of the urban tourism, but do not represent the main attractions for visitors (Popescu, 2008).
These elements have been developed in the cities for a multitude of reasons: attracting visitors, encourage the urban economy, forming a positive image).
1.2. Advantages of urban tourism
Urban tourism, if correctly planned, developed and managed, may create advantages and benefits both to urban communities and overall society (Iordache and Cebuc, 2009). …