Risk-Based Prioritization among Air Pollution Control Strategies in the Yangtze River Delta, China

By Zhou, Ying; Fu, Joshua S. et al. | Environmental Health Perspectives, September 2010 | Go to article overview

Risk-Based Prioritization among Air Pollution Control Strategies in the Yangtze River Delta, China


Zhou, Ying, Fu, Joshua S., Zhuang, Guoshun, Levy, Jonathan I., Environmental Health Perspectives


BACKGROUND: The Yangtze River Delta (YRD) in China is a densely populated region with recent dramatic increases in energy consumption and atmospheric emissions.

OBJECTIVES: We studied how different emission sectors influence population exposures and the corresponding health risks, to inform air pollution control strategy design.

METHODS: We applied the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) Modeling System to model the marginal contribution to baseline concentrations from different sectors. We focused on nitrogen oxide ([NO.sub.x]) control while considering other pollutants that affect fine particulate matter [aerodynamic diameter [less than or equal to] 2.5 [micro]m ([PM.sub.2.5])] and ozone concentrations. We developed concentration-response (C-R) functions for [PM.sub.2.5] and ozone mortality for China to evaluate the anticipated health benefits.

RESULTS: In the YRD, health benefits per ton of emission reductions varied significantly across pollutants, with reductions of primary [PM.sub.2.5] from the industry sector and mobile sources showing the greatest benefits of 0.1 fewer deaths per year per ton of emission reduction. Combining estimates of health benefits per ton with potential emission reductions, the greatest mortality reduction of 12,000 fewer deaths per year [95% confidence interval (CI), 1,200-24,000] was associated with controlling primary [PM.sub.2.5] emissions from the industry sector and reducing sulfur dioxide ([SO.sub.2]) from the power sector, respectively. Benefits were lower for reducing [NO.sub.x] emissions given lower consequent reductions in the formation of secondary [PM.sub.2.5] (compared with [SO.sub.2]) and increases in ozone concentrations that would result in the YRD.

CONCLUSIONS: Although uncertainties related to C-R functions are significant, the estimated health benefits of emission reductions in the YRD are substantial, especially for sectors and pollutants with both higher health benefits per unit emission reductions and large potential for emission reductions.

KEY WORDS: air pollution, China, CMAQ, health risk, ozone, [PM.sub.2.5], Yangtze River Delta. Environ Health Perspect 118:1204-1210 (2010). doi:10.1289/ehp.l00l991 [Online 17 May 2010]

**********

The Yangtze River Delta (YRD), which generally refers to southern Jiangsu Province, eastern and northern Zhejiang Province, and the municipality of Shanghai, is the fastest growing economic development region in China and one of the most densely populated regions in the world. Shanghai is one of the world's largest cities, with > 18 million long-term residents and a population density of > 40,000 people/[km.sup.2] in some districts. Accompanying this economic development has been a dramatic increase in energy consumption and air pollution emissions. For example, although the Shanghai metropolitan area and the provinces of Jiangsu and Zhejiang constitute only 2% of the area of China, their emissions of sulfur dioxide ([SO.sub.2]), nitrogen oxides ([NO.sub.x]), and fine particulate matter [aerodynamic diameter [less than or equal to] 2.5 [micro]m ([PM.sub.2.5])] accounted for 12%, 15%, and 12%, respectively, of total emissions in China in 2006, which increased by 36%, 55%, and 14%, respectively, from 2001 to 2006 (Zhang et al. 2009). [NO.sub.x] emissions are of particular concern because they have increased the fastest and are forecasted to increase even more (Chen et al. 2006).

Several studies (Kan et al. 2004; Li et al. 2004; Streets et al. 1999) have evaluated the health benefits of air pollution control in Shanghai, primarily [SO.sub.2] and [PM.sub.10], and occasionally sulfate particles. Similar studies have been conducted in other parts of China, such as a recent estimate of annual deaths attributable to air pollution in the Pearl River Delta (Loh et al. 2008). In another study in the Pearl River Delta area, Wang et al. (2005) investigated how the emissions from different sectors influenced the concentrations of gaseous pollutants including ozone. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Risk-Based Prioritization among Air Pollution Control Strategies in the Yangtze River Delta, China
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Author Advanced search

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.