The Effectiveness of Gender Role Re-Evaluation and Non-Gender-Focused Group Psychotherapy in the Treatment of Recently Separated Men

By Nahon, Danielle; Lander, Nedra R. | International Journal of Men's Health, Summer 2010 | Go to article overview

The Effectiveness of Gender Role Re-Evaluation and Non-Gender-Focused Group Psychotherapy in the Treatment of Recently Separated Men


Nahon, Danielle, Lander, Nedra R., International Journal of Men's Health


This article explores the viability of Gender Role Re-Evaluation (GRE) and Non Gender-Focused (NGF) group psychotherapy with recently separated men. Sixty-one participants were randomly distributed into three GRE or three NGF groups. Eleven psychometric measures were administered at pre-pre-group, pre-group, post-group and six-week follow-up. Results of a repeated-measures MANOVA revealed significant changes in Emotional Expression, Self and Other Orientation, and Psychological Well-Being, maintained at six-week follow-up. As the first randomized empirical investigation of men's consciousness-raising groups and gender role re-evaluation psychotherapy groups for men, these results provide a more positive re-framing of men's accessible potential for positive therapeutic change in groups, and a more hopeful perspective of the therapeutic potential of group psychotherapy with men undergoing a major psychosocial crisis.

Keywords: males, health care utilization, group psychotherapy, integrity, marital separation, values, gender role strain

**********

The literature suggests that men present a unique therapeutic challenge due to their socialized gender roles. The present study is of both historical and current significance. At the time this data was collected, the emerging literature on men and counselling predicted that men were poor psychotherapy candidates in two important ways: (a) they were unlikely and/or unwilling to seek help and (b) if they did enter counselling, they would have significant difficulty in expressing their emotions, and in establishing a viable emotional connectedness with others. This continues to be a prevalent theme in the literature on psychotherapy with men. For example, Good and Brooks (2005) suggested that "men's help seeking is often tentative and complicated by conflicting motives, making it difficult for counselors to establish therapeutic alliances" (p. 8). Levant (1996) indicated that men do not readily use preventive and therapeutic help, due to difficulties in (a) admitting that there is a problem, (b) asking for help, (c) identifying and processing emotional states, and (d) dealing with intimacy. Richard (2000) suggested that because of the difficulty that traditional therapy comprises for men, it behooves therapists to find alternative forms of treatment that address men's needs.

The hypothesis of men's difficulties in help-seeking and emotional relatedness stems back to Jourard and Landsman's (1960) and Jourard's (1971) hypothesis of the non-self-disclosing male, Pleck's (1976) sex role strain hypothesis, and Garnets and Pleck's (1979) definition of sex role strain as linked to "discrepancies between an individual's perceptions of her or his personal characteristics and her or his standards for herself or himself deriving from sex role norms" (p. 275).

O'Neil (1982) proposed that men who experience gender role strain have adopted the values of"the masculine mystique" (p. 8), expressed through six patterns of gender role conflict and strain: (a) restrictive emotionality; (b) restrictive sexual and affectionate behaviour; (c) homophobia; (d) socialized control, power and competition issues; (e) obsession with achievement and success; and (f) health care problems. Nahon and Lander (1992) suggested that this model has become deeply ingrained in current conceptualizations of men and their potentials--or lack thereof--for emotional expression, help-seeking, and positive therapeutic change.

The question of whether men can viably engage in both individual and group psychotherapy and in support groups is of paramount clinical and theoretical importance. Men's consciousness-raising groups have been described as important therapeutic tools in helping men overcome their gender role strain (O'Neil, 1982; O'Neil & Egan, 1992; Stein, 1982). O'Neil and Egan proposed that by undergoing the cognitive process of examining their internal gender role belief systems through a gender role journey, men will be able to overcome their gender role strain. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

The Effectiveness of Gender Role Re-Evaluation and Non-Gender-Focused Group Psychotherapy in the Treatment of Recently Separated Men
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Author Advanced search

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.