Immaterial Pearl: Belarus-Europe's "Last Dictatorship"-Is Still Unspoilt by Capitalism, Neil Clark Reports
Clark, Neil, New Statesman (1996)
A woman sits bolt upright in the middle of the night. She jumps out of bed and rushes to the bathroom to look in the medicine cabinet. Then, she runs into the kitchen and opens the refrigerator. Finally, she dashes to the window and looks out into the street.
Relieved, she returns to the bedroom. Her husband asks, "What's wrong with you?"
"I had a terrible nightmare," she says. dreamed we could still afford to buy medicine, that the refrigerator was absolutely full, and that the streets were safe and clean. I also dreamed that you had a job, that we could afford to pay our gas and electricity bills."
"How is that a nightmare?" asks her husband.
The woman shakes her head. "I thought the communists were back in power."
This Bulgarian joke, as told by Maria Todorova in the Guardian and now doing the rounds across eastern Europe, doesn't work here in Minsk. This is a capital city where the streets are safe and clean, where ordinary people can still afford to buy medicine and basic foodstuffs and where the unemployment rate is less than 1 per cent. It's the side of Belarus you won't read much about. After last month's presidential elections--in which Alexander Lukashenko was re-elected to serve a fourth term with almost 80 per cent of the vote--the arrest of opposition candidates and hundreds of their supporters led to the reappearance of the old "last dictatorship in Europe" headlines. But shocking as the scenes of police beating protesters were, it would be a mistake to equate Belarus with Burma, or Lukashenko with Joseph Stalin.
Lukashenko's rule is unquestionably authoritarian, as he has conceded, but his policies, which combine aspects of the old communist system--social security and full employment--with a mixed economy and greater personal freedoms than existed in the days of the Soviet Union, have proved hugely popular with the majority of ordinary Belarusians, as his election results testify.
While other former Soviet republics rushed to embrace capitalism following the fall of the Berlin Wall, privatising their state-owned enterprises and removing subsidies to industry and agriculture, Belarus kept the old collectivist flame alive. My guidebook describes it as a country "so unspoilt by the trappings of western materialism that it's very easy to feel a sense of having slipped into another time and dimension". Yet even here--a country where roughly 80 per cent of the economy is nationalised and statues of Lenin still line the streets--times are changing. Pressure from the IMF and Russia and a desire to court the European Union, among other reasons, have led Belarus to embark on a major privatisation programme of its own. Ninety per cent of state-owned businesses have been earmarked for sale. …