Tourism Impacts on Local Communities around Coastal Zones: Issues of Sustainable Development

By Okech, Roselyne N. | Journal of Tourism Challenges and Trends, January 2010 | Go to article overview

Tourism Impacts on Local Communities around Coastal Zones: Issues of Sustainable Development


Okech, Roselyne N., Journal of Tourism Challenges and Trends


Introduction

Although tourism may dominate the economies of many destinations and the incomes of many individuals, it is seldom their only source of sustenance. This is true of most communities and is particularly the case for individuals in many marginal economies. In such situations, many people may not have a conventional job but may farm, fish, hunt, do odd jobs, migrate and send back remittances, obtain unemployment benefits and, generally, support themselves through multiple means. Furthermore, these means may vary with the seasons, and may involve a mix of activities that span the subsistence, barter and cash economies (Tao, Wall 2009). The introduction of tourism may result in conflict with such activities, displacing them or making them less viable, or it may fit into the existing situation as a complementary activity, contributing to economic diversification and forging positive linkages with existing forms of production. Of course, it may also do both at the same time. Acknowledgement of the importance of the links between tourism and other activities leads to the conclusion that tourism should be seen as a tool for development and not as an end in itself (McCool, Moisey 2001; Tao, Wall 2009).

It may be pertinent to ask whether and in what forms tourism might contribute to sustainable development. Such a perspective acknowledges that tourism is unlikely to be the sole user of resources and that a balance should be sought between tourism and other existing and potential activities. It also recognizes that tourism may not be necessary for sustainable development and that the reduction of tourism may be a legitimate goal in certain circumstances. Traditional approaches to biodiversity conservation in protected areas have been criticized to be ineffective and unethical due to externally imposed rules and regulations on local people, which have either resulted in their relocation or have infringed traditional rights to use local resources for subsistence livelihood (Wells, Brandon 1992; Heinen 1996; McNeely 2001; Lai, Nepal 2006). Conflicts between local people and park authorities are often the consequence of externally imposed park regulations and have been reported widely in conservation literature (Wells & Brandon 1993; Nepal, Weber 1995; Hackel 1999; Brandon 2001).

It is suggested that successful protected area management will not be achieved without the cooperation and support from local communities (Wells, Brandon 1993; Gurung 1995; Mehta, Heinen 2001) and that local communities must be empowered and involved in making important conservation decisions (Newmark, Hough 2000; Sofield 2003). To gain local support, the development and implementation of ecotourism and integrated conservation development projects (ICDPs) have been advocated throughout the world (Alpert 1996; Ceballos-Lascurain, 1996; Campbell 1999). According to Mowforth and Munt (2003), there is a vast body of work that demonstrates that local communities in Third World countries reap few benefits from tourism because they have little control over the ways in which the industry is developed, they cannot match the financial resources available to external investors, and their views are rarely heard. This paper examines the communities' degree of involvement in tourism planning, management and ownership, hence local control or community integration. The hypothesis is that a community is characterized as highly integrated in tourism decision-making would experience greater socioeconomic benefits over another community distinguished by a low level of integration. Yet, Lamu and Zanzibar provides, albeit in microcosm, an example of tourism management processes at work, in a context of urban conservation and renewal, processes that are essentially the same as those governing the transformation of far larger-scale and better-financed environments elsewhere.

Socio-Cultural Impacts of Tourism

Because of its nature, it becomes necessary that a rapidly growing tourism industry, as is the case in the Lamu and Zanzibar Old Towns should have its socio-cultural impact designed to achieve the ideals of sustainable development. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Tourism Impacts on Local Communities around Coastal Zones: Issues of Sustainable Development
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.