The Effects of Strategic Morphological Analysis Instruction on the Vocabulary Performance of Secondary Students with and without Disabilities

By Harris, Monica L.; Schumaker, Jean B. et al. | Learning Disability Quarterly, Winter 2011 | Go to article overview

The Effects of Strategic Morphological Analysis Instruction on the Vocabulary Performance of Secondary Students with and without Disabilities


Harris, Monica L., Schumaker, Jean B., Deshler, Donald D., Learning Disability Quarterly


Abstract. This study tested the effects of teaching high school students with learning disabilities (LD) and other students enrolled in general education classes a morphemic analysis strategy for analyzing and predicting the meaning of words. A comparison-group design was used with random assignment of three intact classes to each of two conditions: (a) the Word Mapping condition, where students learned the morphological analysis strategy; and (b) the Vocabulary LINCing condition, where students learned a mnemonic strategy. Three other classes were used to establish a norm for knowledge of targeted words. Students in both strategy groups and students with and without disabilities learned their respective strategy and the meaning of taught words. Word Mapping students with and without disabilities earned higher scores on a test of morphological analysis than students in the other groups. Thus, students were able to learn generative and non-generative vocabulary strategies and could apply a generative strategy to analyze and create meaning for unknown words, an important skill while reading assignments and taking reading tests.

**********

In the last couple of decades, notable progress has been made in improving the reading performance of young students in the United States (e.g., McCardle & Chhabra, 2004), especially in the areas of phonemic awareness and decoding skills. However, the same kind of progress has not been made with adolescents (Deshler & Hock, 2007). Currently, over eight million adolescents have not mastered the reading skills necessary for responding to demanding secondary school requirements or competing for meaningful jobs in the workplace (Kamil, 2003). According to the National Assessment of Educational Progress (2005) results, 26% of eighth-grade students cannot read material essential for daily living, such as road signs, newspapers, and bus schedules. Overall, 68% of secondary students score below the proficient level in reading. Many of these students are students with disabilities.

One reason for the low reading scores of so many students is that they have significant deficits in vocabulary knowledge (i.e., they score at least one standard deviation below the mean). Students with disabilities earn even lower vocabulary scores than other struggling readers (Hock et al., 2009). The importance of vocabulary knowledge to overall academic success, especially in the area of reading and oral comprehension, is well documented (e.g., Catts & Kamhi, 1999; Nagy & Scott, 2000; Snow, Porche, Tabors, & Harris, 2007; Stahl, 1999). Recent reading reports (e.g., National Reading Panel, 2000; RAND Reading Study Group, 2002) have emphasized the central role of vocabulary in student achievement as well as the paucity of research on promoting vocabulary acquisition (e.g., Stahl & Nagy, 2006).

Fortunately, a body of literature is emerging on various instructional approaches to teaching vocabulary to students with high-incidence disabilities. For example, in their review, Bryant, Goodwin, Bryant, and Higgins (2003) organized studies on vocabulary instruction into the following categories: computer-assisted instruction, fluency-building vocabulary-practice activities, mnemonic strategy instruction, and concept enhancement instruction. Similarly, Jitendra, Edwards, Sacks, and Jacobson (2004) organized vocabulary instruction under six headings: mnemonic strategy instruction, cognitive strategies instruction, direct instruction, constant time-delay instruction, activity-based methods, and computer-assisted instruction.

For the purposes of this article, and for the sake of simplicity, instructional approaches for teaching vocabulary will be characterized as either "generative" or "non-generative" (Fillmer, 1977; Harris, 2007; Nagy, 2005). Non-generative approaches are defined here as those designed for teaching students the meaning of a targeted word with the aid of a strategy and/or a device. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited article

The Effects of Strategic Morphological Analysis Instruction on the Vocabulary Performance of Secondary Students with and without Disabilities
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this article
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.