Mandatory Identification Bar Checks: How Bouncers Are Doing Their Job

By Monk-Turner, Elizabeth; Allen, John et al. | The Qualitative Report, January 2011 | Go to article overview

Mandatory Identification Bar Checks: How Bouncers Are Doing Their Job


Monk-Turner, Elizabeth, Allen, John, Casten, John, Cowling, Catherine, Gray, Charles, Guhr, David, Hoofnagle, Kara, Huffman, Jessica, Mina, Moises, Moore, Brian, The Qualitative Report


In the United States, it is illegal to purchase alcohol if one is under the age 21. Still, issues related to the consumption of alcohol are considered by many as the most pressing problem among youth--especially on college campuses (Wechsler, Davenport, Dowdall, Moeykens, & Castillo, 1994). There are two primary outlets for alcohol sales. On site outlets, such as bars and restaurants, have alcohol for sale in the establishment while off site outlets market alcohol. Off site venues include liquor stores and other establishments that sell alcohol to the general public. Much past field research employs pseudo-patrons, "customers" sent into establishments by researchers or law enforcement officials to check compliance with the law; however, less field work aims to better understand how well bars comply with alcohol laws (Forster, McGovern, Wagenaar, Wolfson, Perry, & Anstine, 1994; Grube, 1997; Lewis, Paine-Andrews, Fawcett, Francisco, Richter, Coople, et al., 1996; Montgomery, Foley, & Wolfson, 2006; Preusser, Williams, & Weinstein, 1994; Wolfson, Toomey, Forster, Wagenaar, McGovern, & Perry, 1996). Our work, utilizing observational methods, explores how well bouncers enforce mandatory identification checks in bars.

Factors That Shape the Likelihood of Being Carded

Being "carded" is oftentimes used as a slang term for requesting identification from patrons ordering alcohol. McCall, Trombetta, and Nattrass (2002) emphasized the importance of the decision to request identification because of the consequences associated with making an error and allowing the purchase of alcohol by a minor. Besides personal, financial, and social consequences tied to the sale of alcohol to minors, establishments may lose their liquor license. Researchers have examined how the type of establishment, physical attractiveness of the customer, kind of items purchased and training programs shaped the likelihood of being asked for identification when buying alcohol. Lang, Lauer, and, Voas (1996) found that the venue type shaped the likelihood of being carded. Women were more likely to be carded in nightclubs; however, male customers were more likely to be carded in hotel bars. Wolfson et al. (1996) argued that bars in general were less likely to require customers to produce any type of identification compared to off site establishments like liquor stores. Preusser and Williams (1992) found that chain stores were more likely to ask customers for identification when purchasing alcohol compared to other retail establishments. Exploring how the physical attractiveness of a customer shaped the likelihood of being carded, McCall (1999) found that bartenders were less likely to ask for identification if the customer was physically attractive. Grube and Stewart (1999) found that purchasing behavior, specifically what one purchased along with alcohol, shaped the likelihood of being carded. When minors purchased alcohol, diapers, and bran cereal, they were less likely to be asked for identification than those who aimed to purchase alcohol with chips or candy. Notably, Howard-Pitney, Johnson, Altman, Hopkins, and Hammond (1991) found that employees who were trained by a responsible alcohol-service training program were no more likely to ask for identification from customers under the age of 30 than those establishments that had no training policy in effect.

Thombs, Olds, and Snyder (2003) argued that survey data, which often relies on self-reported information about drinking behavior, limits our understanding of this problem. Nevertheless, self-reported drinking behavior among minors remains high and contributes to health problems including alcohol-related accidents (NIAAA, 2002). Boyd and Faden (2002), Cooper (2002), and Dowdall and Wechsler (2002) maintain that it is important to develop field research designs that allow a different insight into actual behavior. Few studies have examined the prevalence of identification checks at bars-- one option for the on site sale of alcohol. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • A full archive of books and articles related to this one
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Mandatory Identification Bar Checks: How Bouncers Are Doing Their Job
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

    Already a member? Log in now.