Where Next? as the Dust Settles, It Has Become Apparent That Egypt's "Youth Revolution", as It Is Now Popularly Called, Is Just the First Stage towards the Full Economic and Political Emancipation of the Egyptian People. but Will the Revolutionary Winds Blow South across the Sahara? from Cairo, Gamel Nkrumah Reports That It Is Unlikely That the Winds Will Cross the Sahara and Explains Why Egypt Was Ripe for a Revolution

By Nkrumah, Gamel | New African, March 2011 | Go to article overview

Where Next? as the Dust Settles, It Has Become Apparent That Egypt's "Youth Revolution", as It Is Now Popularly Called, Is Just the First Stage towards the Full Economic and Political Emancipation of the Egyptian People. but Will the Revolutionary Winds Blow South across the Sahara? from Cairo, Gamel Nkrumah Reports That It Is Unlikely That the Winds Will Cross the Sahara and Explains Why Egypt Was Ripe for a Revolution


Nkrumah, Gamel, New African


Egypt had long become a synonym for the proverbial neo-colonial state, America's chief ally in the Arab world and North Africa. Cairo, under the government of President Hosni Mubarak, was the cornerstone of the US political agenda in the Arab world. Egypt was the first Arab country to sign a peace treaty with Israel and establish diplomatic relations with the Jewish state.

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

In spite of Egypt's impeccable revolutionary credentials under the late President Gamal Abdul-Nasser, the country continued--under the late President Anwar Sadat and after his assassination by militant Islamists in 6 October 1981, Hosni Mubarak--with the peace treaty with Israel regardless of popular discontent and rejection of the treaty. Egypt thus became a byword for the "sell-out state".

Moreover, the excellent economic and political relations Nasser established with African states south of the Sahara soon drifted into oblivion. Egypt progressively distanced itself from African affairs. President Mubarak rarely turned up at African Union summits, dispatching successive foreign ministers to represent his country, a far cry from the days of Gamal Abdul-Nasser.

Worse, Egypt cultivated the animosity of the Nile Basin countries such as Ethiopia and several of the Great Lakes nations because of Cairo's deliberate disregard for the water rights of upstream Nile Basin nations. Instead of cementing economic and commercial relations with Africa south of the Sahara, Mubarak's government ignored Africa and African affairs.

The Egyptian security apparatus and police force treated black African residents in the country with utter contempt and cultivated a racist attitude among the authorities and populace at large. Africans were routinely rounded up, incarcerated and summarily deported. As a result, they lived in terror of police repression, abuse and deportation.

The massacre in 2005 of Sudanese refugees in Mostafa Mahmoud Square in Mohandiseen, a suburb of Giza, was the culmination of a decade of oppression of Africans by the Egyptian authorities. Mubarak strengthened ties with his Western benefactors, especially the US and EU countries. Africa became irrelevant in Egyptian foreign policy priorities, even though Africa, and especially the Nile Basin nations, represented the strategic depth and lifeline of Egypt because of its utter reliance for its water from the Nile with its sources in the Great Lakes region and Ethiopia.

Africa, as far as Mubarak's government was concerned, was a remote backwater not worthy of the respect of the powers in Egypt. Thousands of black African women worked as domestic servants in the homes of wealthy Egyptians in the most oppressive conditions, which graphically drives the point home. To the Egyptian elite, black Africans were destitute slaves devoid of cultural refinements.

The irony is that the Egyptian elite, with Mubarak's henchmen at the helm, treated ordinary Egyptians with similar contempt. Those on the underside of history, the impoverished millions of Egyptians, Sudanese and other Africans from Africa south of the Sahara, were persecuted and their civil rights were denied. A country of 85 million people, and an illiteracy rate of 50%; Egypt was ripe for revolution.

The rich got richer, the elite got more Westernised, and the poor Egyptians, who constituted over 90% of the population, got poorer and more desperate as their living standards declined and job prospects disappeared. Egypt never suffered systematic racial segregation like South Africa or the US, but it was crystal clear to any resident of the country that the economic and political elite was lighter in complexion than the proletariat and peasantry. The darker-skinned Egyptians occupied the lowest strata of society. The Westernisation of its economic and political elite ultimately and inevitably led to the militant Islamist backlash. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Where Next? as the Dust Settles, It Has Become Apparent That Egypt's "Youth Revolution", as It Is Now Popularly Called, Is Just the First Stage towards the Full Economic and Political Emancipation of the Egyptian People. but Will the Revolutionary Winds Blow South across the Sahara? from Cairo, Gamel Nkrumah Reports That It Is Unlikely That the Winds Will Cross the Sahara and Explains Why Egypt Was Ripe for a Revolution
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Author Advanced search

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.