Effects of Age and Experience on Physical Activity Accumulation during Kin-Ball

By Hastie, Peter A.; Langevin, Francois et al. | Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, March 2011 | Go to article overview

Effects of Age and Experience on Physical Activity Accumulation during Kin-Ball


Hastie, Peter A., Langevin, Francois, Wadsworth, Danielle, Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport


Key words: moderate activity, physical education, SOFIT

In 2008, the U.S. Department of Health & Human Services (USDHHS) released a document titled Physical Activity Cuidelines for Americans (USDHHS, 2008). These guidelines suggest that children accrue at least 60 rain or more of physical activity daily (most of which should be either moderate- or vigorous-intensity aerobic physical activity) and adults achieve at least 150 min/week of moderate-intensity (or 75 min/week of vigorous-intensity) aerobic physical activity.

Concurrent with these recommendations, increasing emphasis has been placed on the development of comprehensive school physical activity programs that encompass physical activity programming before, during, and after the school day (National Association for Sport and Physical Education, 2003). Even the federal government passed legislation (PL 108-265) that requires all districts with federally funded school meal programs to develop and implement wellness policies. Given the shift toward promoting physical activity as a primary objective of physical education, a number of exploratory and intervention studies have examined the extent of activity accrued during physical education lessons. As an executive summary, the following key points are notable. First, while over 90% of American students meet the objectives of Healthy People 2010, less than 3% actually meet Objective 22.6, which relates to bouts of continuous vigorous physical activity (Pate et al., 2002). Second, boys accumulate higher levels of physical activity than gifts (McKenzie, Marshall, Sallis, & Conway, 2000). Third, students in grades 10-12 are significantly less likely than younger groups to meet recommended activity guidelines. Fourth, there is a decline in physical activity in girls during adolescence (Kimm et al., 2002).

While fitness activities produce the most moderate-to-vigorous activity during physical education (McKenzie et al., 2000), many students report sports such as basketball, football, bowling, swimming, and volleyball as their most preferred activities in contrast with aerobics, distance running, and fitness (Hill & Cleven, 2005). Consequently, as Hill (2000) noted, physical educators should strive to discover and develop new and innovative ways to engage their students and create a more enjoyable atmosphere. In particular, identifying team sport games that engage all students in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), regardless of gender or skill level, should be explored. Nonetheless, there has been a history of discriminative and abusive practices during game play in physical education (see Hastie, 2003).

With a specific agenda of creating a fun activity that emphasized teamwork, cooperation, and sportsmanship, Mario Demers, a Canadian physical education professor, created Kin-Ball in the mid 1980s (International Kin-Ball Federation, 2009). The game involves three teams of four players each in which a large ball (4 feet diameter and 2.2 pounds weight (1.22 m and 1 kg, respectively) is sent into space so that one of the other designated teams cannot retrieve it before it touches the ground (International Kin-Ball Federation, 2009).

Specifically, the team that has the ball chooses one of its opponents (usually the one with the most points) by calling its color, preceded by "Omnikin" and then hits the ball toward a strategic place where opponents will be least likely to retrieve it. At the time of the strike, all players of the sending team must be in contact with the ball. If the nominated team does not succeed in catching the ball or makes a mistake according to the game rules, both of the other two teams receive a point.

Currently, the International Federation of Kin-Ball has over 3.8 million registered participants in North America (Canada and the United States), Europe (Belgium, France, Spain, Denmark, Switzerland, and Germany), and Asia (Japan and Malaysia; International Kin-Ball Federation, 2009). …

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