From Domestic Violence to Sustainable Employment

By Crawford, Mary; Brown, Kerry et al. | Forum on Public Policy: A Journal of the Oxford Round Table, Summer 2010 | Go to article overview

From Domestic Violence to Sustainable Employment


Crawford, Mary, Brown, Kerry, Walsh, Karyn, Pullar, Donna, Forum on Public Policy: A Journal of the Oxford Round Table


Introduction

Domestic violence is acknowledged as a significant issue within Australia. Current figures suggest that almost a quarter (23%) of women who have been married or in a de facto relationship will report intimate partner violence each year, while further studies suggest that almost half of all Australian women will experience violence in their lifetime (ABS 1996). While acknowledging the cost to the individual, there has also been a small body of research which is beginning to recognise the consequential costs to governments, whose expenditures are enlarged by responding to the consequences of such violence. The impact of the global financial crisis has meant that governments have had to find savings in their expenditures and have begun to examine the costs of domestic and family violence to the community as a whole.

Much of the current research on domestic violence continues to focus on its causes and consequences, particularly short-term crisis intervention including provision of accommodation, welfare assistance and other emergency support and advocacy services (Costello et al. 2005, 254). This paper moves from such a concentration on immediate needs to exploring a more extended framework by which attention is given to the importance of long-term planning in areas such as job search and career development. Such a scaffold will not only offer individuals an opportunity for long-term independence, but also provides governments with a measure by which overall expenditure can be reduced as more people enter the workforce. In so doing, this project responds to the challenge identified in the work of Phillips (2006) that there is a need for a more long-term integrated approach to the issue of domestic violence in Australia.

First, this paper places the issue of the costs of domestic violence in both an Australian and international context. Second, it examines the impact of domestic violence on individuals, and third it explores the work of Bandura (1989) and Gianakos (1999) to understand career orientation. Finally, by drawing on these concepts builds a framework which provides a pathway for domestic violence victims to attain sustainable employment and independence.

Costs of domestic violence

In Australia, domestic violence has been defined as:

   '... an abuse of power perpetrated mainly (but not only) by men
   against women both in a relationship and after separation. It
   occurs when one partner attempts physically or psychologically to
   dominate and control the other'. (Partnerships Against Domestic
   Violence 2000, 2).

Whilst this definition is not gender specific it is recognised that in the large majority of cases the offender is male and the victim is female (Partnerships Against Domestic Violence 2001, 7). Throughout this paper the term domestic violence refers to abuse by men, directed at women, within intimate partner relationships.

Australia was one of the first countries to attempt to calculate the economic costs of domestic violence with studies in the mid 1980s. In an overview of these studies, Laing (2001, 10) points out that it is only the direct costs which can be quantified and that no study had monetised the "debilitating and terrifying impacts of domestic violence on the lives of women and children." An indication of the magnitude of the problem in Australia is found in the work of Access Economics (2004). They estimate the total annual cost of domestic violence in Australia in 2002-03 (the last time such figures were available) to be $8.1 billion (Access Economics 2004, VII). Pain, suffering and premature mortality accounted for $3.5 billion and $2.5 billion was consumed by lost household economies of scale. The enormity of the cost to individuals is reflected not only in their pain, but also the fact that they bore the financial burden of approximately $4 billion themselves. A further $1.2 billion was expended by governments in providing crisis support. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

From Domestic Violence to Sustainable Employment
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Author Advanced search

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.