Liberalization of International Air Transportation Markets: The Effect of Terrorism on Market Trends

By Rhoades, Dawna L. | Journal of Transportation Management, Fall 2002 | Go to article overview

Liberalization of International Air Transportation Markets: The Effect of Terrorism on Market Trends


Rhoades, Dawna L., Journal of Transportation Management


INTRODUCTION

According to the World Investment Report 2001 published by the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, global foreign direct investment rose to a record US$1.3 trillion dollars in 2000. Contributing to this increase was the number of cross border mergers and acquisitions, which were up nearly 50 percent to US$1.1 trillion (UNCTAD, 2001). In addition to the growth in FDI, world merchandise and service exports have continued to post significant gains. World Trade Organization figures indicate that merchandise exports rose to US$5.47 trillion dollars in 1999 while service exports rose to US$1.35 trillion for the same period. Travel services accounted for $440 billion of these dollars (World Trade Organization, 2001). The latest estimates from, the International Air Transport Association are that the total economic output of the air transport industry is over US$1.3 trillion. In the United States alone, the airline industry contributed nearly $273 billion dollars to the total economy, including $109.1 billion in direct expenditures (salaries, purchase of equipment, etc), $109.1 billion in indirect benefits (airports revenue, travel agency), and $54.6 billion in visitor spending and conference revenues (Air Transport Association, 2000).

While the international air transport industry has played a significant role in globalization of economic activity, the industry itself has remained firmly rooted in the domestic market. Governments around the world have treated airlines like a public utility whose service is said to be in the public interest. The public interest argument is based on three areas: national security and use in national defense under programs like the U.S. Civil Reserve Air Fleet program, postal air delivery, and contribution to commercial activity (Kane, 1999). International airlines also "carry the flag" and represent the national achievement and pride of their home country. This latter role is not

to be underestimated. When the bankruptcy and subsequent grounding of the Swissair fleet forced the Swiss football team to fly Aeroflot to a qualifying match in Moscow, one article reported this as a "further humiliation for the Swiss flag carrier" (Hall, Grant, Done, Cameron, and Dombey, 2001).

Because of the special status accorded to air transport, governments have always taken an interest in promoting and protecting their national carriers. Directly or indirectly governments played an important role in shaping their national aviation systems. A tightly regulated international aviation market whose basic precepts were laid out even before the end of World War II insured protecting the national industry and its carrier(s). In recent years that regulatory regime has come under increasing pressure to liberalize. The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 have called this trend into question as governments worldwide now struggle with issues of security. Many of these governments are also faced with an aviation system on the verge of collapse.

The purpose of this paper is fourfold. First, the regulatory development of the air transportation system will be reviewed, including the rationales for treating air transport as a special case in international business. Second, the forces leading to liberalization of this market will be examined. Third, the progress in air liberalization will be discussed prior to the recent terrorist attacks. Finally, the impact of these attacks on the transportation industry and liberalization will be assessed.

REGULATORY DEVELOPMENT

The development of a regulatory regime for the international air transport industry can be divided into four phases. Phase I witnessed the birth of the industry and a philosophical struggle between freedom and tight regulation. Phase II began with the reluctant acceptance of a system of relatively tight regulation. Phase III saw deregulation of the U.S. air transport industry and renewed efforts for a more liberal international air transport regime. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Liberalization of International Air Transportation Markets: The Effect of Terrorism on Market Trends
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Author Advanced search

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.