"The district courts shall have original jurisdiction of any civil action by an alien for a tort only committed in violation of the law of nations or a treaty of the United States."
Alien Tort Statute, 28 U.S.C. [section] 1350 (2006).
"We assume that Congress legislates against the backdrop of the presumption against extraterritoriality."
EEOC v. Arabian Am. Oil Co., 499 U.S. 244, 248 (1991).
"[T]he number of U.S. lawsuits where American laws are applied extraterritorially to solve global problems has grown. This trend, however, is not peculiar to the United States. Increasingly other countries are also applying their laws extraterritorially to exert international influence and solve transboundary challenges."
Austen L. Parrish, Reclaiming International Law from Extraterritoriality, 93 Minn. L. Rev. 815, 818 (2009) (footnote omitted).
"The Organization is based on the principle of the sovereign equality of all its Members. ... All Members shall refrain in their international relations from the threat or use of force against the territorial integrity or political independence of any state, or in any other manner inconsistent with the Purposes of the United Nations."
U.N. Charter art. 2, paras. 1, 4.
TABLE OF CONTENTS I. INTRODUCTION 1228 II. IMPLICATIONS OF EXTRATERRITORIALITY IN THE ALIEN TORT 1233 STATUTE A. Introduction 1233 B. Overview of ATS History 1235 C. Lower Court Decisions on the ATS's Extraterritorial 1237 Reach 1. International Law Limits on the ATS 1238 2. U.S. Law Limitations on the ATS 1242 D. Conclusion 1245 III. RESPONDING TO EXTRATERRITORIAL LEGISLATION: THE EUROPEAN 1246 UNION AND SECONDARY SANCTIONS A. The History of EU Opposition to Secondary Sanctions 1247 B. Recent EU Support of New Secondary Sanctions Targeting 1250 Iran C. Understanding the New EU Approach--and Its Implications 1252 D. Conclusion: Eliminating Future Conflicts over 1257 Extraterritoriality IV. EXTRATERRITORIALITY AND THE WAR ON TERROR 1258 A. The Context of Boumediene 1259 B. The Lower Courts' Approaches 1260 1. Boumediene Outside of Guantanamo: Al Maqaleh v. 1261 Gates 2. Boumediene Outside of Habeas: Al-Zahrani v. Rumsfeld 1264 C. Implications for Future Detainee Cases 1267 V. COMITY AND EXTRATERRITORIALITY IN ANTITRUST ENFORCEMENT 1269 A. Expanding Comity to Restrict Private Extraterritorial 1272 Enforcement B. Increasing Extraterritorial Criminal Prosecutions 1274 C. The Coordination and Substitution of Private and 1277 Public Extraterritorial Enforcement VI. EXTRATERRITORIAL LAW AND INTERNATIONAL NORM 1280 INTERNALIZATION A. Introduction 1280 B. The Alien Tort Statute 1281 C. The Foreign Corrupt Practices Act 1285 D. The Iran and Libya Sanctions Act 1289 E. Conclusion 1291 VII. CHAPTER 15 AND CROSS-BORDER BANKRUPTCY 1292 A. Framing the Debate: Universalism Versus Territorialism 1294 B. Non-U.S. Extraterritoriality: A Consideration of 1295 Chapter 15 C. U.S. Extraterritoriality: Beyond Chapter 15 1300 D. Lehman Brothers and Cross-Border Insolvency Protocols 1301 E. …