An Inclusive Linguistic Framework for Botswana: Reconciling the State and Perceived Marginalized Communities

By Monaka, K. C.; Mutula, S. M. | Journal of Information, Information Technology, and Organizations, Annual 2010 | Go to article overview

An Inclusive Linguistic Framework for Botswana: Reconciling the State and Perceived Marginalized Communities


Monaka, K. C., Mutula, S. M., Journal of Information, Information Technology, and Organizations


Introduction

Botswana is a multiethnic society with different linguistic dialects. Each ethnic group believes that their language should be mainstreamed in the officialdom of the state and used in education as the media of instruction, government, etc. However, the government of Botswana has, since independence in 1966, advocated for a bilingual policy with Setswana being the national language while English is the official language. Setswana, which derives its name from the name of the country, also happens to be the language spoken by the largest ethnic group in the country. The official policy to recognize Setswana as the national language has created tension between government and some ethnic groups that consider this policy as discriminatory. Despite repeated petitions to government over the years, the political establishment has stood its ground. The ethnic groups that feel their languages are marginalized have responded by forming informal cultural or ethnic groupings to advance the linguistics values of their communities. They also seek the help of regional advocacy groups for support. And more recently, they are increasingly resorting to the application of ICT to promote their values and share knowledge through, for example, creating websites and maintaining databases of their members.

Matters are not made any better for the so called marginalized communities. Most of them reside in remote areas; their ethnic languages do not have a writing system (orthography), and/or there are no dedicated writers in the language. In addition, most issues affecting the cultural communities are policy related, and the cultural associations do not have learned representatives to engage government on issues of concern to them. Besides, the information culture is still essentially oral; it is therefore a daunting task for minority groups to generate written information in their language and on their situation to be easily shared. The situation is not made any better by the fact that there is lack of a supportive language policy for indigenous languages in Botswana.

After Botswana gained independence from the British in 1966, the leaders of the new Republic of Botswana envisaged one nation that was being built under one flag and speaking one language Setswana (Nyati-Ramahobo, 2004). Nyati-Ramahobo (2002) details this fact clearly through statements made by the different presidents of the country at different times. She notes that Sir Seretse Khama, the first president of Botswana, "informed the nation that his party stands for a gradual but sure evolution of a nation state" (Nyati-Ramahobo, 2002). The second president of the country, Sir Ketumile Masire, asked Botswana citizens "not to spoil the prevailing peace and unity in the country by fighting for ethnic language groupings to take precedence over Setswana, and tribes insisting that their languages become media of instruction within their respective areas would break up the nation" (Botswana Daily News, June 30, 1989, no. 123:1, as cited in Nyati Ramahobo, 2004, p. 19).

From the statements above, it is clear that the ethnic groups in Botswana whose mother tongue is not Setswana have for a long time felt marginalized and have been agitating for their languages to be given some form of official recognition (Nyati-Ramahobo, 1987, 1997 1998; Presidential Task Force, 1997). However, the official position of the state is that arguments for the inclusion of ethnic languages in the officialdom do not augur well for nation building and unity. This may explain why non-Setswana mother tongue-speaking communities seem to have taken upon themselves the responsibility of creating awareness about their ethnic culture and languages. These ethnic groups have adopted varied means to advocate for language, cultural, and ethnic identity rights. For example, the Bantu Groups have generally opted to voicing their concerns through their cultural associations, while the Khoe and San groups have largely relied on external organizations to intercede for them. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited article

An Inclusive Linguistic Framework for Botswana: Reconciling the State and Perceived Marginalized Communities
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this article
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.