Sleep and Parent-Family Connectedness: Links, Relationships and Implications for Adolescent Depression

By Mueller, Christian E.; Bridges, Sara K. et al. | Journal of Family Studies, April 2011 | Go to article overview

Sleep and Parent-Family Connectedness: Links, Relationships and Implications for Adolescent Depression


Mueller, Christian E., Bridges, Sara K., Goddard, Michelle S., Journal of Family Studies


ABSTRACT

The present study investigated the relationship between adolescent depression, levels of sleep and family functioning in a nationally representative sample of adolescents. Participants were selected from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) and were split into two separate groups: those who reported getting insufficient amounts of sleep (i.e., 1 to 6 hours/night), and those who reported getting typical amounts of sleep (7 to 10 hours/night). Primary results indicated significant negative relationships between depression and relationships with mother, father and family connectedness. Additionally, for the low-sleep males, a significant negative relationship was found between depression and positive relationship with father, and for low-sleep females, a significant negative relationship was found between depression and a positive relationship with mother and with high levels of family connectedness. Collectively, these results indicate that positive perceptions of parent and family relationships seem to help adolescents avoid depression when they are concurrently experiencing problematic sleep.

Key words: depression; sleep; adolescents; family support

**********

Depression is characterised by a chronic and persistent sadness or loss of enjoyment in normal activities (Baker 1995; Costello et al. 2008; Kendall, Cantwell & Kazdin 1989), and it is typically caused by a complex interplay of genetic, psychological and interpersonal factors. Although the symptoms of depression are problematic at any age, depression in adolescents is particularly troublesome because it can lead to both concurrent and lifelong difficulties. In adolescence, depression has been shown to be concomitant with other psychosocial adjustment problems, including low self-esteem, negative body image and poor academic functioning (Lehtinen et al. 2006; Paxton et al. 2006); depression can be particularly damaging for children and adolescents whose burgeoning growth patterns are still inchoate.

During adolescence, when many teenagers experience increased stress related to the drastic changes occurring in their physical, cognitive, social and emotional growth, some will respond to these changes in troubling ways, including the development of depressive symptomatology. Georgiades et al. (2006) suggested that when compared to younger children, early adolescents experience significantly higher levels of general depressed mood, often caused by rapid developmental changes associated with the onset of early adolescence. Further, Horowitz and Garber (2006) pointed out that depression is thought to affect 1 to 2% of all pre-pubertal children, as compared to anywhere from 3 to 8% of adolescents. Georgiades et al. (2006) concluded that, by middle to late adolescence, levels of major depressive disorder (MDD) often approach those levels found in adult populations. The National Institute of Mental Health (2000) estimated that prevalence rates among adolescents are often as high as 8.3%, with others (e.g., Baker 1995; Kessler & Wakers 1998) suggesting the rate to be even higher at around 10 to 12%. In extreme cases, depression can often lead to suicide with Modroin-McCarthy and Dalton (1996) reporting that suicide is the third leading cause of death among 15- to 24-year-olds.

Because depression is so problematic for adolescents, some researchers have focused on identifying typical risk factors associated with adolescent onset depression (e.g., Reinherz et al. 1999), and other researchers have sought to understand the variables that may buffer adolescents from depression (Mueller 2009). Although risk factors and buffering variables typically associated with depression include a combination of physiological, psychological and environmental factors (Bouma et al. 2008; Costello et al. 2008; MacPhee & Andrews 2006), the current study focuses on how family relationships and average amount of sleep obtained per night may be related to adolescent depression. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Sleep and Parent-Family Connectedness: Links, Relationships and Implications for Adolescent Depression
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Author Advanced search

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.