Perceptions of Secondary School Principals in Saudi Arabia of Time Management Techniques
Abu-Nasser, Fathi Mohammed, Journal of Instructional Psychology
This study explored the perceptions of some secondary school principals in the eastern region of Saudi Arabia toward time management techniques, a random sample of (52) secondary school principals was selected. For the purpose of data collection, a two-domain questionnaire covering time management techniques was developed, and Cronbach alpha reliability coefficient for both domains of the questionnaire was (89.3). Findings of the study showed some time management Techniques that were adapted by school principals in their daily work. some obstacles of time management were also identified.
Success of any educational institution depends on the type of administration and its capabilities to drive the preplanned goals within the time framework set forth. The administrative work requires grate efforts and mental thinking on the part of staff running the institution during the stages of planning, organizing, directing and observing its activates. With hundreds of decisions to make in a day, managing time in such a way that allows principals to prioritize issues effectively is a necessity, The administrative process is complex and demanding with continuous change, high stakes testing, dealing with people and a myriad of tasks both planned and unplanned(e.g, phone calls, meetings, email, discipline). Therefore, it is critical that principals take control of their lives and identify ways to efficiently make use of their time (Hager, 2006). Tracy (2004) stated that people are surrounded by others and circumstances that waste time and undermine effectiveness all day long There have been some researchers who have found principals spend the majority of their time focused on instructional leadership items (Glodt, 2006; 1984; Wells, 1993). On the other hand, there have been other researchers who have found principals spend the majority of their time focused on managerial and organizational items, lack of planning, and weak responsibilities to maintain time (Katz, 1987; Larry, 2003). discovered that when principals make instructional leadership a priority; then most of their time is spent in that area despite the rest of the job requirements.
Similarly researcher in Saudi Arabia asserted that although of the educational development, and the government support for school principals, they still have many problems in different aspects: planning, coordinating, developing, and time management (AL-Zahrani, 1427h; AL-Sharari, 2004; al-athayleh, 2004; Al-hameedi;1415;qothay la, 1999).
The problem of time arises to school to principals because they often face the problem of performing the required works or tasks in the specified time, They focus on the time factor more that the other factors( Rino, 2000). The interest in time management started in the late fifties and early sixties of the twentieth century communication, The first scientific attempt to study the issue of time management has emerged through the book the management of time by James Mehoy in 1958(al-hameedi, 1415h).
It was important to co-ordinate all the various efforts in an administration working within a specific organized and planned timetable. This shows us the importance of time management for school participation which requires us to high light those definitions which refer us to the concept of time management. Al-gbari (2000)defines time management as the art and science of the rational use of time, It is the effective investment of time. and it is a process for planning, organization, co-ordination, motivation, guidance, follow-up and communication (Temb, 1411h) .Time management is a qualitative and quantitative process at the same time. Temp sees that time management can be understood as synonymous with order and regulation and the daily procedure, scheduled for work. And with time effectiveness of these items, time management is more complicated that. It is a psychological case and being ready for personal commitment and most importantly the recording of priorities and habits. …