Development of an HIV Prevention and Life Skills Program for Spanish-Speaking Gay and Bisexual Newcomers to Canada

By Adam, Barry D.; Betancourt, Gerardo et al. | The Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality, Spring-Summer 2011 | Go to article overview

Development of an HIV Prevention and Life Skills Program for Spanish-Speaking Gay and Bisexual Newcomers to Canada


Adam, Barry D., Betancourt, Gerardo, Serrano-Sanchez, Angel, The Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality


Abstract: This article reports on the creation, implementation, and evaluation of a life skills and HIV prevention program for Spanish-speaking gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) who had arrived in Canada in the prior three years. The Nano en Mano program consists of an initial day-long session followed by four two-hour evening sessions addressing HIV prevention, social isolation, social service, and migration issues. The evaluation indicated a significant shift toward safer sex practice and decreased sense of social isolation as expressed in exit interviews. The Mano en Mano intervention thus showed movement in the right direction in relation to HIV prevention and sexual health promotion with evidence of considerable potential to be effective and well liked by participants. Interventions of this type that build social networks and peer bonds in a sexual health context are likely to be useful and effective beyond the Latino newcomers who participated in this pilot program and study.

Introduction

Latino MSM have been showing the steepest rise in HW diagnoses of the six ethnocultural groups (Black, South Asian, Latin American, Asian, Arab/West Asian, Aboriginal) tracked in Ontario, accounting for the largest proportion of HIV diagnoses of the six in 2004, and continuing to rise faster than the MSM average through 2006 (Remis & Liu, 2006, p. 27). The rates are consistent with a report from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention showing that in 2006 "the rate of new HIV infections among Hispanics/Latinos was 2.5 times higher than for whites" (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2010). In addition, the Toronto Pride 2005 survey found that Latino men were "more than twice as likely (OR=2.38-2.63) to report UAI [unprotected anal intercourse] without ejaculation with both casual (OR=2.63, p=0.007) and regular (OR=2.38, p=0.031) partners" (Adam, Husbands, Murray, & Maxwell, 2007, p. 29) compared to other survey respondents.

The epidemiology of HIV within the Spanishs-peaking MSM community is part of a larger context in which MSM make up about half of HIV cases in Canada (Public Health Agency of Canada, 2010). While HIV rates fell throughout the 1990s, they have increased since 2001. Although rates of infection are still lower than at the beginning of the epidemic, 521 MSM in Ontario tested positive in 2009 (Ontario HIV Epidemiologic Monitoring Unit 2011). This finding clearly indicates that HIV transmission within the Ontario MSM community remains and important public health concern.

This article describes the design, presentation and evaluation of an HIV prevention and sexual health intervention to support Latino newcomers to Canada whose vulnerabilities may be exacerbated by the migration experience. The Mano en Mano project focused on the creation, implementation, and evaluation of a life skills and HIV prevention program for Spanish-speaking gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) who had arrived in Canada in the prior three years. A review of the literature on Latino-specific HIV prevention interventions identified a number of critical issues for the heightened vulnerability of Latino migrants to HIV transmission such as disrupted social networks, isolation, and anxiety associated with migration, barriers to accessing health services, exposure to different cultural norms, and limited knowledge about HIV (Carballo-Dieguez et al., 2005; Carrillo, 2004; Conner et al., 2005; Darbes, Kennedy, Peersman, Zohrabyan, & Rutherford, 2002; Dlaz, 1998; Diaz & Ayala, 1999; Diaz, Ayala, & Bein, 2004; Finlinson, Colon, Robles, & Soto, 2006; Guevara, Levy, Frigault, Leobon, & Engler, 2008; Magis-Rodriguez et al., 2009; Martin, Ramos, Lauderdale, Krueger, & Lantos, 2005; Munoz-Laboy, Castellanos, & Westacott, 2005; Poppen, Reisen, Bianchi, & Echeverry, 2005; Ramirez-Valles, 2007; Rhodes et al., 2006; Toro-Alfonso, Varas-Diaz, & Andujar-Bello, 2002; Villarruel, Jemmott, & Jemmott, 2005). …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited article

Development of an HIV Prevention and Life Skills Program for Spanish-Speaking Gay and Bisexual Newcomers to Canada
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this article
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.