Las Interrogativas Hendidas En Espanol: ?Como Es Que Se Usan?

By Rivas, Javier; Brown, Esther | Southwest Journal of Linguistics, December 2010 | Go to article overview

Las Interrogativas Hendidas En Espanol: ?Como Es Que Se Usan?


Rivas, Javier, Brown, Esther, Southwest Journal of Linguistics


ABSTRACT: This paper offers a usage-based approach to Spanish cleft interrogatives, which have received very little attention in the literature. By means of variationist methodology we examine 500 direct wh- questions in a corpus of casual Puerto Rican Spanish conversation. We detail the morphosyntactic characteristics of these constructions, and, through a multiple regression analysis, we show which linguistic factors contribute to the use of cleft interrogatives in spontaneous discourse (pragmatic function and tense). Our corpus-based analysis allows us to establish cleft interrogatives as structurally and textually marked constructions. In addition, we determine that the primary pragmatic function of these constructions is relational (Freed 1994) and that they are frequently used to recover information that has been previously mentioned.

RESUMEN: Este trabajo ofrece una aproximacion basada en el uso a las construcciones interrogativas hendidas del espanol, las cuales han recibido muy poca atencion en la bibliografia. Utilizando una metodologia variacionista, extrajimos 500 construcciones interrogativas parciales directas de un corpus del espanol conversacional puertorriqueno. Determinamos las caracteristicas morfosintacticas de dichas construcciones y, basandonos en un analisis de regresion multiple, mostramos que factores linguisticos contribuyen a la aparicion de las construcciones interrogativas hendidas en el discurso espontaneo (funcion pragmatica y temporalidad verbal). El analisis del corpus nos permite establecer que las interrogativas hendidas son estructuras marcadas en terminos estructurales y textuales. Ademas, desde el punto de vista pragmatico, dichas construcciones cumplen principalmente una funcion relacional (Freed 1994) y se utilizan frecuentemente para recuperar informacion que ha sido mencionada con anterioridad.

I. INTRODUCCION. Las lenguas generalmente disponen de una o mas construcciones gramaticales que los hablantes utilizan para pedir informacion. Dichas estructuras gramaticales reciben el nombre de construcciones interrogativas y normalmente presentan caracteristicas fonologicas y/o morfosintacticas que las separan de otros tipos de oraciones (declarativas e imperativas). Ya en las gramaticas tradicionales (Gili Gaya 1961) se diferencian dos grandes clases de construcciones interrogativas, dependiendo del tipo de respuesta que se espera del interlocutor: interrogativas totales e interrogativas parciales. En las primeras (por ejemplo, '?te la trajo Santa Claus?' entrevista 11, 3) el hablante pregunta por la proposicion entera y por lo tanto busca una respuesta del tipo 'si' o 'no,' mientras que en las interrogativas parciales (como '?donde esta el ketchup?' entrevista 6, 71) el hablante busca informacion en lo que respecta a uno de los constituyentes de la proposicion, el cual aparece representado en posicion inicial en forma de pronombre interrogativo.

Dentro de cada una de estas dos grandes clases de construcciones interrogativas se pueden distinguir diferentes estructuras morfosintacticas dependiendo de factores como, por ejemplo, el orden de palabras o la presencia o ausencia de sujeto explicito. Este hecho es especialmente visible en algunas variedades del espanol como es el caso del espanol puertorriqueno (Lipski 1994). Al analizar un corpus de espanol conversacional de esta variedad, Rivas y Brown (2011) muestran que las interrogativas parciales pueden adoptar las siguientes estructuras morfosintacticas: construcciones interrogativas V[erbo]-S[ujeto] ('?A que vas tu a Las Catalinas?' entrevista 3, 26), construcciones interrogativas sin sujeto expreso ('?Donde esta?' entrevista 12, 23), construcciones interrogativas sin desplazamiento ('?Le tiene miedo a que?' entrevista 12, 26), construcciones interrogativas no oracionales ('?Que Papo que?' entrevista 1,9), construcciones interrogativas multiples ('?donde esta que?' entrevista 12, 171), construcciones interrogativas SV ('? …

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Las Interrogativas Hendidas En Espanol: ?Como Es Que Se Usan?
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