A Geospatial Analysis of the Effects of Aviation Gasoline on Childhood Blood Lead Levels
Miranda, Marie Lynn, Anthopolos, Rebecca, Hastings, Douglas, Environmental Health Perspectives
BACKGROUND: Aviation gasoline, commonly referred to as avgas, is a leaded fuel used in small aircraft. Recent concern about the effects of lead emissions from planes has motivated the U.S. Environmental Protection to consider regulating leaded avgas.
OBJECTIVE: In this study we investigated the relationship between lead from avgas and blood lead levels in children living in six counties in North Carolina.
METHODS: We used geographic information systems to approximate areas surrounding airports in which lead from avgas may be present in elevated concentrations in air and may also be deposited to soil. We then used regression analysis to examine the relationship between residential proximity to airports and North Carolina blood lead surveillance data in children 9 months to 7 years of age while controlling for factors including age of housing, socioeconomic characteristics, and seasonality.
RESULTS: Our results suggest that children living within 500 m of an airport at which planes use leaded avgas have higher blood lead levels than other children. This apparent effect of avgas on blood lead levels was evident also among children living within 1,000 m of airports. The estimated effect on blood lead levels exhibited a monotonically decreasing dose-response pattern, with the largest impact on children living within 500 m.
CONCLUSIONS: We estimated a significant association between potential exposure to lead emissions from avgas and blood lead levels in children. Although the estimated increase was not especially large, the results of this study are nonetheless directly relevant to the policy debate surrounding the regulation of leaded avgas.
KEY WORDS: avgas, aviation gasoline, blood lead, childhood, geospatial, lead poisoning. Environ Health Perspect 119:1513-1516 (2011). http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1003231 [Online 13 July 2011]
Lead poisoning in children living in the United States has declined dramatically over the last several decades as a result of banning leaded gasoline, lead-based paint, and lead solder in plumbing. Nevertheless, children in the United States continue to be exposed to lead. The 2007-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey survey found blood lead levels at or above the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) blood lead action level of 10 [mu]g/dL in about 1.1% of 1- to 5-year-olds, or about 270,000 children (National Center for Health Statistics 2010). Even more worrisome is a large body of recent research that demonstrates negative health effects, including learning disabilities and behavioral disorders, associated with lead exposure levels well below the CDC action level (Canfield et al. 2003; Chiodo et al. 2004; Lanphear et al. 2000; Schnaas et al. 2006). A study by Miranda et al. (2007, 2009, 2010) suggests that early childhood blood lead levels as low as 2 [mu]g/dL can have significant impacts on academic performance as measured by end-of-grade test scores. In response to this body of research, the CDC has stated that there is no safe level for blood lead in children (CDC 2005).
One source of lead exposure that is often overlooked is aviation fuel. Lead emitted from aircraft using leaded aviation gasoline (avgas) is currently the largest source of lead in air in the United States, constituting about 50% of lead emissions in the 2005 National Emissions Inventory [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) 2010]. Although leaded gasoline for automobiles was phased out of use in the United States by 1995, lead is still permitted in avgas. Lead is added to avgas to achieve the high octane required for the engines of piston-driven airplanes. The most commonly used fuel for piston-driven aircraft in the United States is known as Avgas 100LL. Although the "LL" stands for low lead, 100LL gasoline contains up to 0.56 g/L lead (Royal Dutch Shell 2010). Another grade of avgas, Avgas 100, contains higher amounts of lead and is still in widespread use. …