Interleukin-6 and Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness Do Not Vary during the Menstrual Cycle

By Chaffin, Morgan E.; Berg, Kris E. et al. | Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, December 2011 | Go to article overview

Interleukin-6 and Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness Do Not Vary during the Menstrual Cycle


Chaffin, Morgan E., Berg, Kris E., Meendering, Jessica R., Llewellyn, Tamra L., French, Jeffrey A., Davis, Jeremy E., Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport


The purpose of this study was to determine if a difference in interleukin-6 (IL-6) and delayed onset muscles soreness (DOMS) exists in two different phases of the menstrual cycle. Nine runners performed one 75-min high-intensity interval running session during the early follicular (EF) phase and once during the midluteal (ML) phase of the menstrual cycle. Estrogen and progesterone levels were significantly reduced in the EF phase when compared to the ML phase. IL-6 levels increased from pre- to postexercise in the EF and ML phases (p < .001). There was no relationship between the IL-6 level and DOMS. The results suggest that menstruating female runners need not vary training throughout the month to reduce DOMS.

Key words: estrogen, high-intensity exercise, progesterone

**********

Cytokines are low-molecular weight proteins involved in the interactions between immune and nonimmune cells (Gomez-Merino et al., 2006; Nieman et al., 2001). Cytokines are responsible for the influx of lymphocytes, neutrophils, monocytes, and other inflammatory cells into injured tissue at the site of inflammation (Pedersen et al., 2001; Petersen & Pedersen, 2005). It has been proposed that the inflammatory marker interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a product of the muscle cell myoblasts and satellite cells in response to muscle injury. Plasma IL-6 increases at a constant rate during exercise and is correlated to exercise intensity, duration, the muscle mass recruited, and the athlete's endurance capacity (Petersen & Pedersen, 2005). Furthermore, endurance exercise is known to induce pro-inflammatory cytokines that have negative effects on performance (Bruunsgaard et al., 1997; Nieman et al., 2005).

The large number of women participating in endurance events warrants study of the impact of female physiology on these inflammatory responses. Much research on female endurance athletes has focused on menstrual disturbances associated with bone mineral density, body weight, body temperature, and menstrual abnormalities (Bonen et al., 1983; Burrows & Bird, 2000; Garcia et al., 2006; Jurkowski, 1982; Lebrun, McKenzie, Prior, & Taunton, 1995). However, limited research has focused on how the menstrual cycle affects muscle damage, exercise-induced inflammation, and delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS). Hormonal fluctuations during different phases of the menstrual cycle may influence cytokine production during exercise (Timmons, Hamadeh, Devries, & Tarnopolsky, 2005), but research is needed to determine if this hormonal variation is associated with inflammation and DOMS.

The fluctuation of sex hormones across the menstrual cycle may affect production of these inflammatory markers. The menstrual cycle has two different phases: follicular and luteal. In the early follicular (EF) phase, estrogen and progesterone levels are low, and in the midluteal (ML) phase both are elevated. Angstwurm, Gartner, and Ziegler-Heitbrock (1997) reported that resting IL-6 levels are lowest in the luteal phase, when progesterone levels are elevated, and highest in the follicular phase during normal menstruation, when estrogen and progesterone are low. In contrast, the luteal phase has been associated with an increase in the immune cells leukocytes and lymphocytes, which are associated with cytokine production (Bouman, Moes, Heineman, de Leij, & Faas, 2001; Faas et al., 2000).

Several studies suggested that increased 17[beta]-estradiol levels have a protective effect against inflammation and nmscle damage. E2 may provide protection through its membrane stabilizing capabilities and antioxidant properties (B. Kendall & Eston, 2002). Previous research also found that estrogen may significantly impair the inflammatory cascade through gene regulation by reducing the molecule adhesion expression and suppressing neutrophil and macrophage production (B. Kendall & Eston, 2002). As a membrane stabilizer, estrogen may decrease neutrophil free radical production by limiting the fluctuations of intracellular calcium homeostasis (Tiidus, 2000). …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Interleukin-6 and Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness Do Not Vary during the Menstrual Cycle
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.