Environmental Influences of Flooding on Urban Growth and Development of Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria
Ogundele, J. A., Amen, Jegede Osamede, Studies in Sociology of Science
Over the years, environmental degradation has been a source of concern to many nations because of the huge amount of expenditure on its resultant effects. (Ebisemiju, 1993). Thus, it is also of concern because, the huge expenditure have not yielded much desired result due to mismanagement and natural factors.
Flooding as a principal agent of environmental degradation is an environmental issue, which remains threatening to most cities, it has been the result of human interference with the natural environment (Ogunyemi, 2002). The Advance Oxford Learner's Dictionary (2006) describes flood as an overflow of a large volume of water over dry land.
Urban flood is any over land flow of water, over urban street sufficient to cause significant damage of lives and property, traffic obstructions nuisance and health hazards (Adebayo Jegede, 2010). Thus, conditions, which lead to flood occur when the rainfall amount over a particular region is more than a certain amount, normal for that region (Oriola, 2003).
A close relationship exists between the growth of urban centers, and urbanization itself. However, it is regarded as a process, whereby an increasing proportion of the world, nations or regions population lives in urban areas (Falade, 2003). Falade (2003) further states that many factors are responsible for the invasion of people to a particular region within a geographical location, some of this factor include education, employment, housing etc. These emigrational factors often result to over urbanization, which constitute a "strike back" effect on the environment".
As a result of the attraction of people to a particular geographical region, as time goes on, there will be competition in various ways by which land can be put to use leading gradually to urban growth in such geographical location. The creation of Ekiti State in 1996 resulted to rapid growth within the geographical location and equally, the influx of people into Ekiti region. Since then, the state capital, Ado-Ekiti has transformed into a full urban centre, serving as an administrative centre to other parts or areas of Ekiti state.
At the national level, Nigeria's incidence of urban growth is presently frightening with a population of about one hundred and forty million (140 million) people (National Population Commission, 2007). Nigeria is currently among the foremost country rapidly experiencing urban growth among the countries in Africa. On the average, Ado-Ekiti urban population growth rate is about three percent per annum, although higher growth figures as much as 6 percent) has been recorded in metropolitan areas such as Lagos and Kano state in Nigeria (Adebayo and Omotoso, 2000).
Adebayo and Jegede (2010) discovered that flooding results from excessive rainfall, blockage of natural drainage channels, and the overflow of river banks etc. this at the moment is on the increase, due to poor management of waste habit and the degree of urbanization of cities are most important factors determining the spatial variation in the intensity of river floods in towns.
Trinic (2002) stated that losses of flooding is enormous and can be categorized into economic and social losses. Economic losses can be quantified and this includes loss of economic goods like crops, crop damage occurs; when flood come earlier, rise or occur rapidly. Also, the uprooting of economic trees by the forces of erosion and flooding leads to reduction of construction materials, as such, the forest and soil becomes denuded. Owing to lack of capacities in the soil, surface rainfall runoff and flood peaks become higher.
Flooding is inimical to human activities, especially when it occurs on a large scale (Ogunyemi, 2002). Flooding has been a threat in some parts of Ado-Ekiti, e.g. Basiri, Irona, Bawa Estate, Adehun, Omisanjana, Atikankan, Ureje areas of Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria. This is as a result of low rate of infiltration of the soil, as a result of pavements in the areas. …