Counseling in Greece

By Malikiosi-Loizos, Maria; Ivey, Allen E. | Journal of Counseling and Development : JCD, January 2012 | Go to article overview

Counseling in Greece


Malikiosi-Loizos, Maria, Ivey, Allen E., Journal of Counseling and Development : JCD


We will risk being called Euro- or Greco-centric and argue that the philosophical origins of counseling can be traced to the Socratic dialectic method of inquiry because Socrates is the philosopher who moved the focus of philosophical inquiry to the nature of human beings and was the first advocate of a person-centered worldview. Socrates's messages of "know thyself," "the unexamined life is not worth living" and "give me beauty in the inward soul; may the outward and the inward man be at one" have influenced modern thinking and are at the very core of the counseling identity. His message to his disciples to take care of their soul and to look at the good in them, along with his invitation for self-examination and self-analysis, rightfully grants him membership in the counseling profession.

Counseling as a specialized service offered by a trained professional did not exist in Greece until recently. Greece has been traditionally characterized as a collectivistic culture (Nezlek, Kafetsios, & Smith, 2008; Triandis, 1994), where family, friendship, and other social relationships were highly valued (Malikiosi-Loizos & Anderson, 1999). As such, counseling has been embedded traditionally within the complex support system of social relationships (Lampropoulos & Stalikas, 2009). Although some aspects of urban family life in Greece have now shifted from collectivist to individualistic (Georgas, 1989; Mylonas, Gari, Giotsa, Pavlopoulos, & Panagiotopoulou, 2006), traditional Greek culture remains more collectivist than the individualistic tradition of most Western countries from which counseling developed as a specialty. It is not surprising that parents, brothers, and sisters, as well as close friends, are still the persons to whom Greeks turn to discuss their problems and seek solutions to those problems (Kalantzi-Azizi & Malikiosi-Loizos, 1994; Malikiosi-Loizos, Christodoulidi, & Gialamas, 2010). However, it is also true that there is a shift to professional counseling seeking among people living in the large urban centers, a process that is also slowly expanding in rural areas. There is a growing demand for psychological counseling, which is pressing the need for more experts in the field.

* History of Counseling in Greece

Greece is a western European country, a member of the European Community and the Eurozone. According to its 1975 constitution, the political system of Greece is a presidential parliamentary republic. Its population is estimated to be about 11,306,183, 10% of which is immigrant, coming primarily from neighboring countries such as Albania, Turkey, Bulgaria, and Romania. Education is free of charge and compulsory. Compulsory education comprises kindergarten (2 years), elementary school (6 years), and junior high school (gymnasium, 3 years). Postcompulsory secondary education, senior high school (Lyceum), lasts for 3 years and allows students to participate in state-administered examinations to enter a higher educational institution.

The Greek term for counseling is symvoulevtiki, meaning codecide, and comes from syn- (together or with another person's help) and voulevomai (making plans or thinking together with another person before reaching a decision). It is a term used to describe any process during which an individual is assisted in clarifying thoughts and feelings, overcoming difficulties, and learning more about oneself. Counseling is thought to promote goal setting and to offer positive models that can be used as a basis for building human strengths and optimal functioning. A broad definition provided by the Greek Counseling Psychology Division's website (www.counselingpsychology.gr) states that counseling is the applied branch of psychology that facilitates lifelong personal and interpersonal functioning, focusing on emotional, social, vocational, educational, developmental, and health issues. It supports people in their important life decisions or in their adjustment to new and often difficult situations. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Counseling in Greece
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.