A Journey from Androcentricism to Anthropocentricism: On Gender and Philosophy in Ancient Philosophy (Pre-Socratics)/Erkek-Merkezcilikten (Androcentrism) Insan-Merkezcilige Yolculuk (Anthropocentrism): Antik Felsefe Ve Cinsiyet Uzerine (Pre-Sokratikler)

By Erkizan, Hatice Nur | Kadin/Woman 2000, June 2011 | Go to article overview

A Journey from Androcentricism to Anthropocentricism: On Gender and Philosophy in Ancient Philosophy (Pre-Socratics)/Erkek-Merkezcilikten (Androcentrism) Insan-Merkezcilige Yolculuk (Anthropocentrism): Antik Felsefe Ve Cinsiyet Uzerine (Pre-Sokratikler)


Erkizan, Hatice Nur, Kadin/Woman 2000


Abstract

Women have been made invisible in many areas of knowledge for so long. Feminist philosophy which started about at the beginning of 1970 aimed to end this invisibility. It seemed very much a very unlikely project at first but the determination of including women and her experience in philosophical inquiry has produced the enormous body of works of women's contribution in much knowledge as well as philosophy. These endeavours have resulted in transforming old-age androcentric paradigm in philosophy and in many other subfields. Androcentric paradigm has erased women from history of philosophy that is obvious in Aristotle, Augustinus, Kant, Hegel, Sartre and in general in the Western Philosophy. Thus it is not suprising that almost any history of philosophy text is compiled of male philosophers. Philosophers are all men! Yet it is interesting to notice that though women are omitted from the canons of philosophy, philosophers analyse, define and judge women directly. This study particularly aims at showing male bias in Ancient Philosophy as part of history of philosophy and looks critically at it and tries to disclose that the discourses of philosophy are neither gender-neutral nor free of bias. Therefore the Canon should be re-written to make visible what have been made invisible. And this investigation is just the first step of it.

Keywords: women, philosophy, feminism, ancient philosophy, history, Pre-Socratics, gender.

Oz

Kadinlar, uzun sure bircok bilgi alanlarinda gorunmez kilinmislardir. 1970'lerin basinda ortaya cikan feminist felsefe bu gorunulmezligi ortadan kaldirmayi amaclamistir. Basta, cok da imkanina ihtimal verilmeyen bir proje gibi algilanmis olsa da kadinlari ve onlarin deneyimlerini felsefi arastirmaya eklemleme karaciligi kadinlarin bircok bilgi alaninda oldugu gibi felsefe alaninda da cok buyuk capta katkilarda bulunmasi ve eserler vermesi ile sonuclanmistir. Bu calismalar felsefe ve diger dallarda eski caglardaki ataerkil paradigmanin degistirilmesi ve donusturulmesini saglamistir. Ataedcil paradigma; Aristoteles, Augustinus, Kant, Hegel, Sartre, ve genel olarak Bati felsefesinde de acikca goruldugu uzere, kadinlari felsefe tarihinden silmistir. Bu durumda, dogal bir sonuc olarak, felsefe metinlerinin neredeyse hepsinin erkek filozoflar tarafindan kaleme alindigi/ uretildigi gerceginin sasirtici bir yani olmayacaktir. Filozoflarin tamami erkektir! Ancak, kadinlar felsefe kanonlarindan uzak tutulsa da, filozoflarin; kadinlari tam hedef alarak analiz etmeleri, tanimlamalari ve yargilamalari dikkate alinmaya deger bir noktadir. Bu calisma spesifik olarak felsefe tarihinin bir uzantisi ve parcasi olmasi baglaminda Antik Felsefe'deki ataerkil onyargilari ortaya koymayi amac edinir ve konuyu elestirel duzlemde tartismanin yani sira felsefi soylemlerin ne cinsiyetten ve ne de onyargidan uzak oldugunu gostermeyi hedefler. Dolayisiyla; Kanon 'gorunmez kilinmis olani 'gorunur' kilmak icin yeniden yazilmalidir. Bu sorusturma onun yalnizca ilk adimidir.

Anahtar kelimeler: kadin, felsefe, feminizm, antik felsefe, tarih, Pre-Sokratikler, cinsiyet.

Herhangi Bir Felsefe Tarihine Giris Degil, Feminist Felsefe Tarihine Giris

Cok ogrenmek, akla hocalik yapmiyor-aksi halde Hesiodos, Pythagoras ve yine Ksenofanes ve Hecataerus da akilli olurdu.

Herakleitos

Felsefeden soz etmek ilk bakista oldukca sorunsuz ve hatta rahatlaticidir. Felsefede cinsiyetinizi unutabileceginizi, yalnizca ve yalnizca hakikatin, bilgelik sevgisinin sizi sarip sarmaladigini dusunebilir, umut edebilir ve nihayet "mutluluga" ulasmasaniz da sizi o yola goturecek bir iz uzerinde oldugunuzu dusunebilirsiniz. Thales'ten baslayip Platon'a giden yolda Augustinus'a ugrar oradan da Descartes, Kant, Hegel, Locke ve Sartre'a ugrarsiniz. Gezintinin adi " Felsefe Tarihi"dir. Neden bu adlar silsilesinde Philiuslu Axiothea, Theano, Argnote, Myia, Damo, Perictione, Miletoslu Aspasia ve Hypatia gibi adlara rastlamazsiniz? …

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A Journey from Androcentricism to Anthropocentricism: On Gender and Philosophy in Ancient Philosophy (Pre-Socratics)/Erkek-Merkezcilikten (Androcentrism) Insan-Merkezcilige Yolculuk (Anthropocentrism): Antik Felsefe Ve Cinsiyet Uzerine (Pre-Sokratikler)
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