A Philippine Case Study of Conflicting Models in Mass Communication Education

By Shafer, Richard; Maslog, Crispin C. et al. | Journal of Development Communication, December 2010 | Go to article overview

A Philippine Case Study of Conflicting Models in Mass Communication Education


Shafer, Richard, Maslog, Crispin C., Suva, Madeline, Journal of Development Communication


Development journalism is one international media model that has been touted as an alternative and perhaps reaction to the traditional Western model that most often assumes private or corporate ownership and is primarily supported by advertising. Reporters, editors and broadcasters adhering to the Western journalism model can be expected to endorse some degree of objectivity that assumes their job is to present the facts and to let the reader, listener or viewer reach his or her own conclusions and interpretations of the news and information they are providing. News is thus viewed as a commodity and beyond the idealism of working journalists. A primary goal of news production and dissemination is marketing and profits.

'A field of development communication as a field of study and practice is development journalism. This new genre of journalism is about reporting and interpreting the news from a development perspective. It refers to both the contents of journalism (development) and the process of reporting, which is different from traditional, or conventional, journalism.'

That the Western model continues to dominate worldwide and to be recognised by the United Nations as the primary journalism model to be propagated in developing countries is evidenced by the 2007 UNESCO model journalism curricula, which fails to mention development journalism or any other alternative journalism models in defending and advocating for the new Western-based model they propose. By this omission of a discussion of alternative and interventionist press models, it is apparent that UNESCO is an unreserved advocate for the Western model, although developing nations such as the Philippines are determined, as this study suggests, to explore and support alternative models such as development journalism as a tool for nation building and mobilising the population to achieve development and economic well-being.

Despite high idealism and intensive promotion by its designers and advocates, the development communication model has yet to prove successful at winning widespread endorsement by working journalists in either developed or underdeveloped nations that usually command the largest audiences. Development communication has in some cases been imposed on professional journalists with backgrounds in relatively independent commercial media. Once they become accustomed and proficient regarding Western news conventions and newsroom culture, they are likely to resent conceding the kind of professional empowerment, independence and sense of control of the news and information they gather. In the past, initiatives for the promotion of development journalism have tended to be top-down and often clumsy in implementation. The model suffers from the fact that its origins are in universities or foundations, rather than in newsrooms or professional journalistic organisations.

Perhaps because of the intransigence of Philippine journalists to adopt development journalism, supporters of the model in Philippine development communication programmes are moving away from promoting it as a substitute for the Western model. Rather they are focusing on training development communicators for careers outside of professional and commercial journalism, and concentrate on the model's roots in agricultural extension and other forms of non-profit communication. Still contemporary development communication students show a propensity to see their development communication training as a path to launch communication careers that pay better than non-profit organisation and government jobs do. Thus, they may be less idealistic regarding national development than their instructors are.

As might be observed, the definition of Development Communication has remained in flux and problematic since its inception and is notably abstract with regard to its application to professional journalism. Is development journalism actually "journalism" as most professional practitioners know it, or is it an interventionist arm of government or other forces for "development" that may or may not have the best interest of the society in mind? …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

A Philippine Case Study of Conflicting Models in Mass Communication Education
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Author Advanced search

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.