U.S. Lead in Countering Bioterrorism Could Create Acute Problems

By Falkenrath, Richard A. | European Affairs, Summer 2005 | Go to article overview

U.S. Lead in Countering Bioterrorism Could Create Acute Problems


Falkenrath, Richard A., European Affairs


Biodefense is one of the most important topics on today's counter-terrorism agenda, and is certainly among the top priorities of the U.S. national security apparatus. Yet there has been far too little international dialogue on the subject, let alone substantive cooperation.

The United States is making enormous efforts in the areas of bioterror prevention, detection, and response. Since the terrorist attacks of 9/11, the United States has spent over $20 billion on biodefense of one kind or another, primarily on fundamental research and development and the procurement of medical counter measures and surveillance and response systems, including a very large stockpile. Two major pieces of legislation have been enacted--the Bioterrorism Law of 2002 and the Bioshield Law of 2004 - and the National Institutes of Health (NIH) is conducting a substantial scientific research and development program.

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The United States has deployed atmospheric sensors for biohazards and biopathogens in several dozen cities. We have made a vital change in the rules for approving the efficacy of drugs so that animal studies can now be used to determine the efficacy of possible counter-measures. We have accumulated a huge stockpile of medical countermeasures, both drugs and other medical apparatus, that are on pallets ready to be deployed anywhere in the world at very short notice. We have enough smallpox vaccine to vaccinate the entire U.S. population, plus a small extra amount to help out with international crises. We have a very large bio-surveillance initiative which seeks to integrate the many different sensors now deployed.

We have engaged in an extraordinary bioforensic effort that has focused on the anthrax attacks of October 2001 and has significantly advanced the boundaries of science and bioforensics in dealing with the anthrax microbe. Huge grants for biodefense are being given to state and local public health agencies. Major exercises have been carried out, both at meetings of experts and in the field. Some of these exercises have involved the President, and many have involved cabinet secretaries, in order to create a realistic simulation of a bioterror attack and push the U.S. response system and vaccination efforts to the point of failure.

We have changed the criminal code to incorporate new bioterrorism offenses, making sure that all our actions are legal, and we have revised the regulations governing the Select Agent Program, administered by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, that monitors the possession of biological agents and toxins that could pose a severe threat to public health and safety. …

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