Discipline Referrals and Access to Secondary Level Support in Elementary and Middle Schools: Patterns across African-American, Hispanic-American, and White Students

By Vincent, Claudia G.; Tobin, Tary J. et al. | Education & Treatment of Children, August 2012 | Go to article overview

Discipline Referrals and Access to Secondary Level Support in Elementary and Middle Schools: Patterns across African-American, Hispanic-American, and White Students


Vincent, Claudia G., Tobin, Tary J., Hawken, Leanne S., Frank, Jennifer L., Education & Treatment of Children


Abstract

Given documented racial/ethnic disproportionality in disciplinary referrals and strong recommendations to base provision of secondary level supports on data, we explored whether students from various racial/ethnic groups have equitable access to secondary supports. We disaggregated discipline data from 155 elementary and 46 middle schools by student race/ethnicity and behavioral risk level to assess the extent to which different racial/ethnic groups were disproportionately represented among students at each risk level and students receiving secondary support. Outcomes indicated that Hispanic-American and White students were underrepresented among students with multiple disciplinary referrals, while African-American students were over-represented. African-American students were over-represented among students receiving secondary support in elementary schools but were less likely to receive this support in middle schools. Across all schools, number of referrals as well as race/ethnicity emerged as statistically significant predictors of access to secondary level support. Limitations to the current investigation and recommendations for future research are provided.

It has become a well-known fact that students from non-White backgrounds, especially African-American and Hispanic-American students, experience poorer discipline and academic outcomes in the United States public school system than their White peers. For African-American students, research has documented disproportionately high numbers of office discipline referrals (Bradshaw, Mitchell, O'Brennan, & Leaf, 2010; Kaufman et al., 2010; Skiba, et al., 2011; Skiba, Peterson, & Williams, 1997; Vincent, Tobin, Swain-Bradway, & May, 2011), comparatively harsher punishments for behavioral violations (Glackman et al., 1978; Gregory, 1995; Shaw & Braden, 1990; Skiba, Michael, Nardo & Peterson, 2002; Skiba & Peterson, 2000), and increased odds for being suspended Or expelled (KewelRamani, Gilbertson, Fox, & Provasnik, 2007; Krezmien, Leone, & Achilles, 2006; Wallace, Goodkind, Wallace, & Bachman, 2008). These behavioral outcomes are accompanied by comparatively lower reading and math achievement (Lee, 2000; Lee, Grigg, & Donahue, 2007) and overidentification for special education services (Coutinho & Oswald, 2000; Harry & Klingner, 2006; Waitoller, Artiles, & Cheney, 2010; Zhang, Katsiyannis, & Herbst, 2004). For Hispanic-American students, research has documented disproportionately high rates of suspension beginning in middle school (Skiba et al., 2011), comparatively high levels of anxiety and depression (Fletcher, 2008; McLaughlin, Hilt, & Nolen-Hoeksema, 2007; Varela, Sanchez-Sosa, Biggs, & Luis, 2008; Zayas, Lester, Cabassa, & Fortuna, 2005), and high drop-out rates (Stillwell, 2010). Similar to African-American students, Hispanic-American students lag far behind their White peers in reading and math at the elementary, middle, and high school level (Aud, Fox, & KewalRamani, 2010).

While documentations of racially disproportionate educational outcomes abound, our understanding of why these outcomes occur and what might change them remains limited. General guidelines to redress racial inequity in educational outcomes include culturally responsive evidence-based behavior support delivered within a response to intervention (RtI) framework as a vehicle to increase students' time engaged with academic instruction (Cartledge, Singh, & Gibson, 2008; Klingner et al., 2005; Skiba et al., 2008). The key recommendations for culturally responsive delivery of evidence-based behavior support within an RtI framework are (a) availability of support structures of varying intensity; (b) continuous data collection for screening, diagnostic, and progress monitoring purposes; (c) interpretation of those data to determine a student's responsiveness to existing support mechanisms; (d) open discussions of race in data interpretations; (e) early and culturally specific intervention in the form of additional support for students who are at risk of behavioral failure; and (f) family involvement (Gresham, Lane, & Lambros, 2000; Hawken, Vincent, & Schumann, 2008; Lane, Kalberg, & Menzies, 2009; Schumann & Burrow-Sanchez, 2010; Skiba et al. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Discipline Referrals and Access to Secondary Level Support in Elementary and Middle Schools: Patterns across African-American, Hispanic-American, and White Students
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.