Canada on the (UN Security) Council

By Reford, Robert | Behind the Headlines, Fall 1998 | Go to article overview

Canada on the (UN Security) Council


Reford, Robert, Behind the Headlines


Canada, recently elected to the United Nations Security Council for the fifth time, first served in 1948 and 1949. At that time I was with British United Press in New York, and covering Canada's activities at the UN was part of my beat. The Canadian delegation was in the Rockefeller Center, about an hour's drive from the Sperry Gyroscope plant on Long Island, where the Security Council met while the UN waited for its Manhattan headquarters to be finished.

Canada's ambassador was General A.G.L. McNaughton, whose typically Canadian approach to controversial issues involved searching for a solution acceptable to all parties. His instructions, drafted in the very early days of the cold war, set out the main lines Canada would follow in taking up its new responsibilities. `The Canadian representative on the Security Council ... should do everything he can to halt the deterioration in relations between the Great Powers, or failing that, to ensure that any conflict will be waged collectively and with an overwhelming superiority of power on the side of the western democracies. In following this principle, he will be concerning himself directly with the interest which Canada has in peace and security.'

The instructions noted that Council membership could involve Canada speaking out on issues which might seem to be outside its national interests and on which it might otherwise remain silent. `The judgments ... on United Nations matters must therefore be made with care and a sense of responsibility.' The ambassador was also briefed on the need for Canada `to establish and maintain a position of independence' and to avoid the possibility that `unfriendly observers will write us off as a satellite' of either the United States or Britain.(1)

It is worth noting that there was no mention of peacekeeping. That response to an international crisis did not come until 1956, when it was proposed by Canada's Lester Pearson as a way out of the Suez crisis. Nor is there any mention of human rights. That should not be surprising; the Universal Declaration of Human Rights was not adopted by the General Assembly until 10 December 1948.

The presidency of the Security Council rotated monthly. In February 1948, Canada assumed the presidency for the first time. The Council met 23 times in 29 days, mainly to debate three major items on the agenda: Kashmir, over which India and Pakistan were fighting; Indonesia, where the Netherlands and Indonesians were struggling over the political future of the colony; and the future of Palestine after the British mandate ended.

The Kashmir debates were memorable for the length of the speeches by Sir Mohammed Zafrullah Khan of Pakistan and Mr Ayyanger of India. They were lengthy (I believe they set a record that lasted many years), but they were also brilliant expressions of partisan positions. McNaughton's efforts to find common ground were fruitless, and he persuaded the Council to send the two men back to report to their governments and ask for new instructions.

In January 1948, the Netherlands and the Indonesian resistance signed a truce and an agreement on the principles for a political settlement. However, fighting broke out again in December, followed by a year of good offices and negotiations. The formal transfer of power took place in December 1949, and in September 1950 Indonesia became a member of the United Nations. …

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