Video Recorded Feedback for Self Regulation of Prospective Music Teachers in Piano Lessons
Deniz, Jale, Journal of Instructional Psychology
The main purpose of the study is enabling the prospective teachers to make self-regulations by video recording their piano performances with their instructors and feedbacks of their instructors and detect the views of specific students concerning these video records. The research was carried out during 2008-2009 academic year in Marmara University, Ataturk Faculty of Education, Department of Music Teacher Education. In the research, four prospective teachers from different grades have been covered and data have been gathered through semi-structured interviews. The results, in general, showed that prospective teachers had benefited and positive experiences from their video records. The prospective teachers also reported that the use of video records of their piano performances as feedback improve the quality of their piano performances.
Key Words: Self regulation, feedback, piano education, performance evaluation, video recording
As of 2005-2006 academic year, The Ministry of National Education started to gradually adapt the secondary education curriculum into constructivist teaching approach. Similar practices have taken place in elementary education curriculum as well. Within this framework, certain regulations based on constructivist approach have been set to implement in elementary school (1st-8th grades) starting from 2007-2008 academic year (MEB, 2007). All these regulations in the curriculums of primary and secondary education have inevitably affected curriculums of higher education institutions for teacher training as well. Consequently prospective teachers have been more equipped regarding practices and learning experiences reflecting constructivist approach in the curriculums of primary and secondary education institutions they are to be employed after graduation. Parallel to the other fields, in music teacher training programs as well, efforts that fit into constructivist teaching approach have been made.
Constructivism is a knowledge theory or philosophical explanation concerning the nature of learning. Constructivism underlines that by forming teaching and learning experiences in a way to activate students' thoughts we should assist them in structuring new information (Schunk, 2009:275). The main point in constructivism is that the learner constructs new information based on his/her past experiences and knowledge. Nonetheless, as stated by Acikgoz (2008:67) too, constructivism is not explaining the way to perform teaching but rather the way how student learns; hence the reflection of constructivism in class environment is possible only via active learning methods.
In active learning, the learner bears the responsibility for his/her own learning process. Active learning is the kind of a learning process where learner is given the opportunity to take decisions regarding several aspects of learning process and make self-regulation and it is a system where the learner is forced to employ his/her mental skills while learning by means of complex teaching practices (Acikgoz, 2008:17). Throughout this process, use of metacognitive skills plays a significant role in enhancing the quality of learning process.
Constructivist theory of Vygotsky concerning human development led him to self-regulation. Vygotsky believed that human beings and their cultural environments structured interactive social systems. By means of communication and action, folks around children taught them the tools they need to gain skills (such as language, symbols, signs etc.). As these tools are employed within the system students develop higher levels of metacognitive functions like concept acquisition or problem solving. When he employed the term 'high mental function' Vygotsky pointed to an intentionally driven thought system. From this perspective, self-regulation may be viewed as a high mental function. Self-regulation includes in itself the coordination of mental procedures like memory, planning, synthesis and evaluation. …