Comparative Study on Moderate Scale Management of Agricultural Land in China and Japan
Huang, Yi, Studies in Sociology of Science
Chinese famers have the tradition of depending directly upon the land and they once created glorious history in their land. In early 1980s, Chinese famers creatively reformed rural land policies--the household contract responsibility system. The household contract responsibility system is an agricultural production responsibility form which means that famers based on family contract with collective groups for land and other means of production and production tasks. At that time, with the low production ability and economic level, the policy has greatly encouraged famers' enthusiasm for production, improved the volume of agricultural productions, and resolved the problem of food supply and clothing of people. When social economic develops into certain degree, this small-scale scattering management mode gradually become obstacles of further improvement of agricultural production efficiency. In order to increase agricultural production output, it is necessary to expand agricultural management scale to realize agricultural land moderate scale management. However, how to complete agricultural land moderate scale management has become an issue that is urgently needed to resolve.
1. ANALYSIS OF THE SIMILARITY BETWEEN CHINESE AND JAPANESE AGRICULTURAL LAND MODERATE SCALE MANAGEMENT
1.1 Similar Background
China and Japan are counties both with large population but relatively little (arable) land. The principal contradiction during the process of social economic development in China and Japan is the sharp contradiction between large population and little arable land. China has to feed 24% of the world population by 7% land of the whole universe, therefore, agricultural production in China takes on great and arduous responsibilities. Moreover, Japan only sizes 1/25 of China but it has to feed about 125 million people (1) with a 50% agricultural production self-sufficiency rate. In addition, the degree of population ageing in Chinese rural population has reached 15.4% and more than 50% of Japanese rural population are 65 years old or more.
1.2 Similar Reform Experiences
Japan after World War II and China after the reform and opening up both adopted a "disperse--concentrate" way of agricultural land reform. After the defeat of Japan, in order to meet the need of food, Japan started small-scale scattering management on agricultural land with the aim of the agricultural land reform that to build a "landholding famers" system that "famers own land" which greatly encouraged famers in agricultural production and help increase output of Japanese food. After that, in order to solve the land fragmentation problem and improve agricultural land production efficiency, Japan changed its low efficiency home-based small farm management form which is carried out in late 1960s to the higher efficiency collective joint management based scale management. The household contract responsibility system held in China in late 1980s is also a land reform built up on the thought of "average land". The aim of the reform is to realize "famers have their own land", emancipation of the productive forces, and improve production enthusiasm of agricultural producers. With the development of Chinese economic and speed up of urbanization, over fragmentation of agricultural land and super small scale management have greatly stopped Chinese agricultural industrial structure adjustment and agriculture modernization. Under such circumstance, "Decisions on major issues in promoting rural reform and development" was carried out in the end of 2008 which stipulates that "further develop various kinds of agricultural scale management", therefore, China has started its agricultural land moderate scale management.
1.3 Similar Difficulties
After the convalescent of World War II, Japanese economic developed in a very fast way. Non-agricultural economic has provided huge amount of job opportunities. Young famers chose to work in secondary industry and tertiary industry one after another. …