Spider Grandmother and Other Avatars of the Moon Goddess in New World Sacred Architecture
Schuetz-Miller, Mardith K., Journal of the Southwest
(1.) "Tairona," Wildpedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wild/Tairona, accessed January 7, 2009.
(2.) Reichel-Dolmatoff, Datos historicos-culturales, 79-80.
(3.) Egyptian Mythology, 131; Ely, Ojos de dios, 4-11; Poignant: 95; Doig, Manual de arqueologia peruana, 506; Willey, Introduction to American Archaeology, 272 and fig. 5:22; Furst, Ninth Level, 30; Anguiano Fernandez, "Time to Bid the Dead Farewell," 382 and caption to fig. 94.
(4.) Schafer, Ancient China, 32.
(5.) Graham, Folk Religion in Southwest China, photos facing p. 200.
(6.) Paludan, Chronicle of the Chinese Emperors, 34-35.
(7.) J. E. Kidder, Japan before Buddhism, 162-63.
(8.) Kubler, Art and Architecture of Ancient America, 343-44.
(9.) Schultz, "Waura," 148-49.
(10.) The following Kogi data are from Reichel-Dolmatoff, "Funerary Customs and Religious Symbolism," 296-98. My own comments are bracketed. The earliest recorded myth of the Cosmic Egg in the New World is found in the Huarochiri Manuscript penned around 1600 CE (see Salomon and Urioste, Huarochiri Manuscript). It tells of five eggs laid on Condor Cota Mountain (western slope of the Peruvian Andes) from which five falcons, ancestral to humans, emerged.
(11.) Reichel-Dolmatoff, Forest Within, 176.
(12.) Stone, Ancient Mirrors of Womanhood, 289-90.
(13.) Lessa, Ulithi, 56.
(14.) Graves, Greek Myths, 60:2.
(15.) Aveni, Ancient Astronomers, 145-47.
(16.) Reichel-Dolmatoff, Forest Within, 42, 56-57, 108.
(17.) Schaefer, "Cosmos Contained," 342.
(18.) Radin, Indians of South America, 144-53, 159-61.
(19.) Schultz, "Children of the Sun and Moon," 340-63.
(20.) Dramatic archaeological discoveries made throughout China during the past two decades are revealing distinct cultures that challenge the old belief that Chinese culture emerged from various city-states, known as the Shang dynasty, that were built on the plains along the middle reaches of the Yellow River. As examples, a three-tiered earthen platform situated at the center of what was probably a fortified town uncovered at Longanagucheng, along the upper reaches of the Yangtze in Sichuan province, provided a date of about 3000 BCE (Normile, "Yangtze Seen as Earliest Rice Site," 309). A vast area with hundreds of settlements along the coastal plains of the same river reaching to Shanghai, where rice had been domesticated since 7000 BCE or longer, is identified with the Liangzhu Culture (3500-2250 BCE). It produced walled cities protected with moats, and large mounds, some with burials that included finely carved jade, ivory, and lacquer. These wares, found far and wide beyond its borders, are evidence of a considerable trade network. Earlier yet is the Hongshan Culture (4500-2250 BCE) in northeastern Liaoning and Inner Mongolia where elaborate stone tombs held jade carved into phoenix and dragon forms. The extent of contact between the Chinese city-states and those to the west is yet undetermined (Lawler, "Beyond the Yellow River," 930-35).
(21.) The following descriptions of ceremonial centers are all from Burger, Chavin, unless otherwise noted. My interpretations are in brackets.
(22.) Dillehay, Rossen, and Netherly, "Nanchoc Tradition," 46-55.
(23.) Solis, Haas, and Creamer, "Dating Caral," 723-26; Sandweiss and Moseley, "Amplifying Importance of New Research," 1651-52; Haas and Creamer, "Response," 1652-53. A recent study on the domestication of maize in South America suggests that it arrived in coastal Ecuador about 4,200 years ago, having presumably spread from Mexico, where maize cobs have been recovered from a cave in Oaxaca dated about 6,250 years old. See K. Brown, "New Trips through the Back Alleys, 631,633. Even earlier evidence comes from the state of Tabasco, where pollen of Zea mays has been dated to 5100 BCE (see Pope et al. …