Integrated Management as a Background of Modern Environmental Policy
Zharova, Liubov, Global Business and Management Research: An International Journal
Ukrainian environmental policy was formed on the bases of law "Mainstream of Governmental Policy of Ukraine on use and conservation of natural resources, and environmental safety" that was adopted in 1998 and became the main document that regulated relations in sphere of nature conservation, environmental management and safety. In due time this document executed a political volte-face by putting up environmental factor in politics and policies, and decision-making process. Unfortunately this document became out of date too quickly due to changes inside the country and in the world. The period 1998-2010 years the international environmental cooperation was very active and Ukraine was trying to keep abreast with this processes.
Particularly in this time took place 5th Kyiv (2003) and 6th Belgrade (2007) ministerial conferences "Environment for Europe", World summit on sustainable development in Johannesburg (2002), the Ukraine joining to WTO and ratified protocols and conventions.
Changes inside the country could be illustrated such common for all world thing like crisis and the specific one like political wars (including so-called orange revolution) that reduced awareness of environmental problems. The new document "Strategy of Governmental Environmental policy of Ukraine up to year 2020" was adopted on 21st of December 2010 can become a reference point for changes.
Today the environmental problems could not stay apart from others, because they become part of everyday life and kinds of activity. The solution should be find in new management approaches that naturally included environmental issues in general process of decision making. In this framework the presented research is concentrated on possibilities (practical, institutional and legislative) to implement of integrated management methodology in Ukrainian practice. The most appropriate methodologies for today situation are Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) for overall planning and management process and Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) for specific territories. The represented research is endeavor to systemize practical and theoretical concerns and draw up propositions for integrated management implementation.
Literature Review (or Previous Research)
The overview of scientific researches and publication concerning the effectiveness and sufficiency of environmental policy for last 15 years can be resumed in following way:
--the laissez-faire environmental policy was intrinsic for Ukrainian society. The consequences of this could be divided on several patterns. The first one is low priority of environmental policy, programs and planes in comparison with other governmental policies, especially in funding issues. The second one is isolating the environmental policy from others, including sectoral ones. This caused absence of environmental component in planning process and collision during implementation. The third one is dissemination of "not in my backyard" mentality not only through civil society but also through administrative and governance practices. The one of the result is not ratifying of "Protocol on Strategic Environmental Assessment" (Protocol on SEA, 2003), that was signed in 2003 on Ministerial conference "Environment for Europe". Actually it still not ratified.
--the objectives of environmental administrating and management did not correspond with modern approaches to legislative background of environmental policy. In this context the environment should be considered as a system (here we could refer to numerous works on ecosystem and ecosystems approach) but current management and legislative systems made by issue approach. The issues of use of water resources, land resources and subsoil is regulating by separated codes, that could not solve complex problems. The accents in management should moved to integrability and complexity.
--the common problem of majority of strategic document in Ukraine is absence or excessive generality of reference points and indicators. …