Features of Applying Decision-Making Methods to Evaluation of Financial Stability of Commercial banks/Sprendimu Paramos Metodu Taikymo Ypatumai Vertinant Finansini Komerciniu Banku Stabiluma

By Ginevicius, Romualdas; Podviezko, Askoldas | Business: Theory and Practice, December 2012 | Go to article overview

Features of Applying Decision-Making Methods to Evaluation of Financial Stability of Commercial banks/Sprendimu Paramos Metodu Taikymo Ypatumai Vertinant Finansini Komerciniu Banku Stabiluma


Ginevicius, Romualdas, Podviezko, Askoldas, Business: Theory and Practice


1. Ivadas

Be stabilios finansu sistemos neimanomas salies ekonomikos funkcionavimas. Issivysciusi finansu sistema skatina ekonomikos augima, taciau finansu krizes gali niveliuoti pasiekimus ar sustabdyti augima. Lietuvos finansu sistemos stabilumas tiesiogiai priklauso nuo komerciniu banku stabilumo ir patikimumo, nes komerciniai bankai sudaro Lietuvos finansu sistemos kaip ir daugelio besivystanciu saliu pagrinda. Lietuva, kartu su kitomis salimis pereidama is centralizuotos planines ekonomikos i rinkos ekonomika, perejo salies ekonomikos ir finansu sistemos liberalizavimo procesa, o tai labiau nei kitose saliu grupese isryskino finansu sistemos nestabilumo veiksnius. Namu ukiams esant pagrindiniu banku finansu saltiniu (Allen, Gale 2000), komerciniu banku stabilumas priklauso nuo banku klientu elgsenos, todel siame straipsnyje nagrinejamas finansinis banku stabilumas kaip pagrindine banku patikimumo sudedamoji dalis.

Savoka "stabilumas" kildinama is lotynu kalbos zodzio "stabilitas"--istvermingumas, patvarumas, pastovumas. Siame straipsnyje iskeltos problematikos kontekste stabilumo savoka apibrezia finansinio mokumo ilgalaikiskuma. Patikimumo savoka jungia tokias objekto savybes, kurios sukuria objekto ivaizdi kaip patikima ar kelianti pasitikejima. Sio straipsnio temos kontekste finansinis tarpininkas laikomas patikimu, jei jam klientas samoningai pasiruoses patiketi savo lesas.

Finansinis komerciniu banku stabilumas nagrinejamas mokslininku jau daugiau nei 100 metu. Vienas pirmu zinomu saltiniu mokslineje literaturoje, kuriame nagrinejamas komerciniu banku stabilumas, 1910 m. isleista Olivero M. W. Sprague knyga "Kriziu istorija nacionalines bankines sistemos kontekste" (Sprague 1910), kurioje aprasomos 1873, 1884, 1890, 1893 ir 1907 m. ivykusios Jungtinese Amerikos Valstijose banku krizes, ju pasekmes ir priemones, kuriu buvo imtasi. Tuo metu dar nebuvo techniniu galimybiu taikyti sudetingu banku vertinimo metodu, kurie siuo metu grindziami ne tik matematinemis teorijomis ar statistiniu duomenu gausa, bet ir informaciniu technologiju galimybemis.

Net praejus beveik visam amziui, kai mokslo lygis ir kompiuterizacija labai pakilo, problemos, formaliai apibudinancios banku sistemos stabiluma, vis dar iskeliamos. Zymiausi ekonomistai ir itakingos finansu organizacijos dare nemazai bandymu siekdami formaliai apibrezti banku sistemos stabiluma. 1996 m. Lindgren, Garcia Saal (1996) iskele banku sistemos stabilumo apibrezimo problema pazymedami, kad sudetinga pamatuoti banku sistemos stabilumo lygi. Vienoje issamiausiu mokslines literaturos su banku stabilumo problematika apzvalgoje Houben, Kakes, Schinasi (2004) bei zymaus ekonomisto, nagrinejancio banku sistemos stabiluma Goodhart (2006) straipsnyje pazymima, kad tikslaus banku sistemos ar finansinio stabilumo apibrezimo dar nera sukurta. Tai nebuvo nuolatiniu moksliniu tyrimu sioje sferoje, tyrimu metodu ir metodiku tobulinimo kliutis. Siuo metu galima isryskinti tris pagrindines metodu, taikomu banku stabilumo tyrimuose, kategorijas. Tai reitingavimo agenturu, statistiniai-ekonometriniai ir operaciju tyrimu metodu pogrupis--daugiakriteriniai sprendimu paramos metodai (angl. multicriteria decision aid methods, MCDA).

Sio straipsnio tikslas-apzvelgti taikomas komerciniu banku-finansinio stabilumo vertinimo metodikas, isryskinti ju trukumus ir pranasumus, pasiulyti daugiakriterinio vertinimo metodika. Aprasytoji metodika pritaikyta Lietuvoje registruotu komerciniu banku finansiniam stabilumui vertinti.

2. Banku vertinimo metodikos

2.1. Reitingavimo agenturu metodikos, kuriose skiriamas prioritetas kokybiniams metodams

Reitingavimo agenturu metodikose taikomi seniausi imoniu (taip pat ir komerciniu banku) vertinimo metodai. Vienas pirmuju naudoti ir publikuoti imoniu finansiniu kiekybiniu kriteriju reiksmes pradejo Dun and Bradstreet pirmtakas 1841 m. (Dun and Bradstreet 2012), taip pradedamas reitingavimo agenturu veiklos istorija. …

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Features of Applying Decision-Making Methods to Evaluation of Financial Stability of Commercial banks/Sprendimu Paramos Metodu Taikymo Ypatumai Vertinant Finansini Komerciniu Banku Stabiluma
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