Sunscreen 101


What is that one skin care product we need to use daily especially this summer?

Sunscreens are skin care products that absorb or reflect ultraviolet radiation on the skin that is exposed to sunlight. Sunscreens, commonly referred to as sunblocks, have been recommended by dermatologists for years due to the harmful effects of ultraviolet radiation. The United States Department of Health and Human Services and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Agency of Research on Cancer have declared ultraviolet radiation from the sun as a known carcinogen.

The science

There are three types of ultraviolet radiation - UVA, UVB and UVC. UVA penetrates deeply in the skin but does not cause sunburn. It suppresses the immune system of the body. UVB on the other hand causes sunburn. Both UVA and UVB may cause skin cancer. UVC is the most dangerous type of ultraviolet light because of its potential to harm the earth. Luckily, it could not reach the earth's surface, sparing us from its harmful effects.

There are two types of sunscreens: the physical sunscreens and the chemical sunscreens. Physical sunscreens scatter and reflect the ultraviolet rays. Examples of these are zinc oxide and titanium dioxide. These ingredients are inert and do not break down over time. They do not cause contact dermatitis or photodermatits. In other words, they do not cause irritation to the skin, which is good for people with sensitive skin.

Chemical sunscreens, on the other hand absorb, the ultraviolet radiation through a photochemical reaction. It is usually composed of several active ingredients. Two of these are 2 ethylhexylmethoxycinnamate and 2 ethylhexylsalicylate. The chemical paraaminobenzoic acid or PABA may cause contact dermatitis. Consumers are advised to take hold of a PABA-free sunblock.

Most chemical sunscreens work in the UVB range and few of them block UVA. These may carry a risk of contact dermatitis or photodermatitis but the risk is quite low. Many consumers prefer chemical sunscreens because they are available in many forms such as cream, lotion and gels.

The application

In the Philippines, there are a number of sunscreen products in the market, some of which are produced locally while others are imported. Some are produced by leading skin companies while others are mixed and distributed by local dermatologists.

As mentioned earlier, sunscreens may be in the form of lotion, cream, gel, ointment, stick, or spray. Creams are for dry skin on the face. Gels may be used for hairy areas, scalp or men's chests. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited article

Sunscreen 101
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this article
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.