Irritable Border Syndrome: The Impact of Security on Travel across the Canada-U.S. Border

By Bradbury, Susan L. | Canadian-American Public Policy, December 2012 | Go to article overview

Irritable Border Syndrome: The Impact of Security on Travel across the Canada-U.S. Border


Bradbury, Susan L., Canadian-American Public Policy


Table 9 Paired t-test analysis and results.

Peace Arch        Before            After

Average wait time  11.55             6.96

Maximum wait time  30.32            15.32

Minimum wait time   2.68             1.51

Standard deviation  7.29             5.02

t value            -2.58

p value 22, .05    1.717  Not Significant

p value 22, .01    2.508  Not Significant

It should be noted that the average border wait time declined at the same time the amount of traffic through the port was starting to increase. However, a new Canadian port-of-entry facility began construction in August 2007. (7) Although the facility was not officially opened until August 2009, many of the improvements were completed and in operation by September 2008. The new facility expanded the number of primary processing lanes from seven to ten, increasing the overall inspection capacity of the facility (Canada Border Services Agency 2009d). The impact of the construction of this facility on average border wait time can be clearly seen on Figure 12. During construction the average border wait time increased but once construction was completed the wait time dropped significantly. In addition to the new facility the Advanced Traveler Information System (ATIS) was put in place at Peace Arch and Pacific Highway in 2007. The ATIS consists of signage that provides travelers with wait times at the two ports and thus helps to distribute traffic more efficiently between the two facilities, which are located approximately one mile apart (Whatcom Council of Governments, 2007).

Peace Arch is a rather unique case study due to the fact that more data exists for this crossing than for the others in this study. The Whatcom Council of Governments (WCOG) maintains a comprehensive data set, the Cascade Gateway Border Data, for the four crossings commonly referred to as the Cascade Gateways, consisting of Peace Arch, Pacific Highway, Sumas-Huntingdon and Lynden-Aldergrove. This data set includes border wait time data for cars and trucks traveling in both directions as well as traffic volumes, number of vehicles in the queue, queue length and service rate at each of the four ports (Whatcom Council of Governments, 2012). As a result, this data set allows for the average border wait time to be examined for traffic going in both directions, northbound to Canada as well as southbound to the U.S. This data can be seen in Figure 12 for the Peace Arch. As Figure 12 shows, the average border wait time for southbound vehicles crossing into the U.S. is significantly greater than for those vehicles traveling northbound to Canada (see Table 10). The average border wait time for vehicles entering the U.S. at Peace Arch is 11.7 minutes compared to 8.4 minutes for vehicles entering Canada (see Table 10) between August 2003 and December 2009.

[FIGURE 12 OMITTED]

Table 10 Peace Arch North to Canada South to U.S.

Peace Arch       North to Canada South to U.S.

Average wait time            8.4          11.7

Maximum wait time          30.32         34.74

Minimum wait time           1.51             0

Standard deviation          5.61          7.43

t value                     3.11

p value 77. .05             1.67   Significant

p value 77, .01             2.39   Significant

However, there are some problems with the data. For instance, no data is available for a four-month period for southbound vehicles between December 2007 and March 2008 (Whatcom Council of Governments, 2012). In addition, construction began on a new U.S. port facility in August 2007 and continued for the next several years (Whatcom Council of Governments, 2010b). Construction on the new facility was mostly completed by February 2010, in time for the Vancouver Olympics (U.S. Department of Homeland Security, 2010). All construction was completed by December 2010 and the new facility was officially opened in March 2011 (U.S. General Services Administration, 2011). As a result, we cannot tell if the higher average border wait time observed for southbound vehicles during 2008 and 2009 is due to the implementation of the WHTI, construction delays, or to a combination of both. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited article

Irritable Border Syndrome: The Impact of Security on Travel across the Canada-U.S. Border
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this article
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.