By Ciccolo, Angela | Proceedings of the Annual Meeting-American Society of International Law, Annual 2012 | Go to article overview


Ciccolo, Angela, Proceedings of the Annual Meeting-American Society of International Law

I would like to congratulate the International Law Students Association for hosting this panel to discuss issues that arise in the new age of globalized sports, and to thank the other panelists for their informative presentations. We share a common perspective--that the value of sport to society is unlimited in that it inspires us and brings us together on a level playing field.

The organization I represent, Special Olympics, is an international NGO representing nearly 4 million athletes in 170 countries. I have several booklets if you are interested in seeing what we do. We face many of the same legal challenges as other organizations. We operate under a protocol with the International Olympic Committee. Our World Games events face many of the hurdles that may be discussed today regarding the use of images and intellectual property rights, and commercial issues involving event sponsorship. We struggle with anti-doping issues, particularly as many of our athlete population use medication for therapeutic purposes.

My focus today, however, will perhaps be different from the other panelists, in that the issue I will address is how sports can play a role in advancing certain rights addressed in international instruments such as the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD), which is designed to promote human dignity and foster nondiscriminatory, inclusive societies.

My organization, Special Olympics, strives to create a better world by fostering acceptance and inclusion of people with intellectual disabilities. When viewed through the lens of disability rights, sports becomes an avenue for social justice and the simple joy that recreation and interaction with other people can bring.

You have and will hear me today using the term "disability." What is it? Disability is any physical or mental condition that limits a person's movements, senses, or activity. The term is used to refer to attributes that are severe enough to interfere with or prevent normal day-to-day activities. This would include those who have long-term physical, mental, intellectual, or sensory impairments which may hinder their full and effective participation in society on an equal basis with others.

Disability is a universal condition crossing all socioeconomic boundaries, races, religions, and creeds. The World Bank reports that 600 million people, or 10% of the world's population, have a disability. Up to 80% of these people live in developing nations.

Disability is a cause and consequence of poverty, In developing countries, 98% of disabled children live in poverty and do not receive an education. These rates are even higher for girls.

In much of the world, stigma, discrimination, and exclusion from employment and from society are the consequences of the negative assumptions about persons with disabilities. Perhaps you have never considered the role of sports in promoting inclusion, and in eradicating poverty, but this concept, and legal instruments such as the CRPD, can bring fundamental change to the way in which governments--and ultimately communities and families--view and treat people with intellectual and physical disabilities.

The best way for me to illustrate at the micro level how sport can be used to address the rights of persons with disabilities--and be used as a tool for eradicating stigma, bringing together communities and liberating the human spirit--is to introduce you to Aaron.

Here is a picture of Aaron. I'd like you to pass it around.

As you can see from the photo, Aaron is tethered to his home by a rope. His parents used this method to restrict his movements for seven years at the time of this photo was taken, and they did this because he was born with intellectual disabilities.

Aaron comes from Mangulu village in Traditional Authority (T/A) Kalumo in the Ntchisi district of Malawi in Africa.

Aaron was born into a family of five children; he is the first-born and the only child with an intellectual disability in his family. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Cite this article

Cited article

Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25,

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited article



Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25,

    New feature

    It is estimated that 1 in 10 people have dyslexia, and in an effort to make Questia easier to use for those people, we have added a new choice of font to the Reader. That font is called OpenDyslexic, and has been designed to help with some of the symptoms of dyslexia. For more information on this font, please visit

    To use OpenDyslexic, choose it from the Typeface list in Font settings.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Author Advanced search


    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.