Bristol, Bridge to the Wide World
Wheeler, Sara, Newsweek
Byline: Sara Wheeler
Growing up in a port, you look outward. The low elephant grief of ships' horns was the soundtrack of my Bristolian childhood. We were proud of our seafaring roots: my parents named my brother Mathew after the ship in which John Cabot sailed away from our city to discover the North American mainland (or so it was said: we weren't having any of that Viking explorer nonsense).
Saxon settlers founded Bristol 1,000 years ago on the banks of the Avon in the southwest of England, although Romans had been there before them, as today's arrow-straight roads reveal. The modern city is a riot of stone, unlike London, which is brick built. On either side of the gleaming cobbles of King Street, half-timber Tudor trows (inns) shoulder up to multistory car parks, the kind of historical overlap typical of this most organic of urban centers. On the elegant 19th-century streets of the Clifton neighborhood, neoclassical mansions exude the confidence of mercantile wealth built on sugar and slavery, as do the names of the streets--Whiteladies Road, Blackboy Hill--while around the Hotwells Spa, where slavers' wives once enjoyed the waters, developers have moved in to renovate the Georgian townhouses.
If a single image represents Bristol, it is the Clifton Suspension Bridge, a soaring half hoop spanning the Avon. Initially funded by a wine merchant (a nice Bristolian touch, that), the bridge was eventually designed by a 24-year-old named Isambard Kingdom Brunel. All he wanted to do was build a bridge that held up, but in the process Brunel created a piece of beauty to rival the Pont Neuf. Incidentally, the tidal range of the Avon--a whopping 43 feet, the second highest in the world--meant that when ships were grounded at low tide, the crew were obliged to tie every last thing down, hence the still-current expression "shipshape and Bristol fashion."
When the Industrial Revolution quieted the clamor of the foghorns, the Wills and Fry manufacturing dynasties took over. They owed their fortunes to tobacco and chocolate, respectively, and in the 1920s and '30s red-brick factories and smokestacks rose over the eastern quarters. In the Second World War, German planes bombed the city to bits, aiming at the docks and the Bristol Aeroplane Co. In a single attack in November 1940, 12,000 incendiary bombs and 160 tons of high-explosive bombs fell, and my auntie was born in an air-raid shelter. …