Potential External Contamination with Bisphenol A and Other Ubiquitous Organic Environmental Chemicals during Biomonitoring Analysis: An Elusive Laboratory Challenge
Ye, Xiaoyun, Zhou, Xiaoliu, Hennings, Ryan, Kramer, Joshua, Calafat, Antonia M., Environmental Health Perspectives
BACKGROUND: Biomonitoring studies are conducted to assess internal dose (i.e., body burden) to environmental chemicals. However, because of the ubiquitous presence in the environment of some of these chemicals, such as bisphenol A (BPA), external contamination during handling and analysis of the biospecimens collected for biomonitoring evaluations could compromise the reported concentrations of such chemicals.
OBJECTIVES: We examined the contamination with the target analytes during analysis of biological specimens in biomonitoring laboratories equipped with state-of-the-art analytical instrumentation.
DISCUSSIONS: We present several case studies using the quantitative determination of BPA and other organic chemicals (i.e., benzophenone-3, triclosan, parabens) in human urine, milk, and serum to identify potential contamination sources when the biomarkers measured are ubiquitous environmental contaminants.
CONCLUSIONS: Contamination with target analytes during biomonitoring analysis could result from solvents and reagents, the experimental apparatus used, the laboratory environment, and/or even the analyst. For biomonotoring data to be valid--even when obtained from high-quality analytical methods and good laboratory practices--the following practices must be followed to identify and track unintended contamination with the target analytes during analysis of the biological specimens: strict quality control measures including use of laboratory blanks; replicate analyses; engineering controls (e.g., clean rooms, biosafety cabinets) as needed; and homogeneous matrix-based quality control materials within the expected concentration ranges of the study samples.
KEY WORDS: benzophenone-3, biomonitoring, bisphenol A, exposure assessment, parabens, reagent blank, triclosan. Environ Health Perspect 121:283-286 (2013). http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1206093 [Online 16 January 2013]
Humans are exposed to environmental chemicals through industrial and indoor air pollution, diet, and use of personal care and consumer products. Biomonitoring (i.e., measurement of the environmental chemicals or their metabolites in biological speciments) is widely used to assess human internal exposure (i.e., body burden) to these chemicals [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) 2012; Den Hond et al. 2011; Frery et al. 2012; Health Canada 2010; Kim et al. 2011; National Research Council 2006; Suzuki et al. 2010].
Proper biomonitoring practices take into account the selection of the relevant biomarker and biomonitoring matrix, the potential impact of the collection protocol on the biomarker levels in the sample, as well as the integrity of the sample during its collection, handling, storage, and analysis (Calafat and Needham 2009). Furthermore, accurate and precise highly sensitive and selective multianalyte analytical methods for extraction, separation, and detection of the environmental chemicals are required to obtain valid biomonitoring data (Angerer et al. 2007). Participation in external quality assessment programs [e.g., Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Program (Institut National de Sante Publique du Quebec 2012), German External Quality Assessment Scheme (G-EQUAS; Social and Environmental Medicine of the University Erlangen-Nuremberg 2012)] and the use of standard reference materials (SRMs) from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (Keller et al. 2010; Schantz et al. 2013) are very useful tools to evaluate method accuracy.
However, even with the application of sophisticated and accurate methods, external contamination with some ubiquitous environmental organic chemicals, such as bisphenol A (BPA), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), during sample analysis can compromise the analytical determination of these compounds [Alcock et al. 1994; Sjodin et al. 2004; World Health Organization (WHO) 2011]. External contamination can even preclude accurate analyses of phthalate diesters, which are detected in the cleanest laboratory reagents, sampling equipment, and analytical apparatus. …