Le Champ D'application De L'article XX(a) Du GATT et le Travail Dangereux Des Enfants: Une Question Relevant De la Moralite Publique

By Villanueva, Francisco F. | McGill Law Journal, December 2012 | Go to article overview

Le Champ D'application De L'article XX(a) Du GATT et le Travail Dangereux Des Enfants: Une Question Relevant De la Moralite Publique


Villanueva, Francisco F., McGill Law Journal


This article relates to the discussion taking place about the possibility of identifying an implicit social clause in the text of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT). The recognition of such a clause would eventually allow World Trade Organisation (WTO) member states to use the exceptions in article XX of the GATT to adopt restrictive trade measures against countries liable for breaches of fundamental workers' rights, including the right of children to be protected against hazardous work. The analysis in this article will focus on the exception under article XX(a) concerning the protection of the public morals of the importing country. Specifically, this article will attempt to demonstrate prima facie that the exploitation of child labourers during the production of imported goods undermines the public morality of the importing country and, therefore, that measures related to those goods could be justified under article XX(a) of the GATT, subject to satisfying the necessity condition of this rule.

Le present article s'insere dans le cadre de la discussion quant a la possibilite d'identifier une clause sociale implicite dana le texte de l'Accord general sur les tarifs douaniers et le commerce (GATT). La reconnaissance d'une telle clause permettrait eventuellement aux Etats membres de l'Organisation mondiale du commerce (OMC) d'avoir recours aux exceptions prevues par l'article XX du GATT afin d'adopter des mesures commerciales restrictives a l'encontre des pays tenus responsables des transgressions des droits fondamentaux des travailleurs, parmi lesquels se trouve la protection des enfants contre le travail dangereux. L'analyse effectuee au cours de cet article s'attardera sur l'exception de l'article XX(a), qui concerne la protection de la moralite publique du pays importateur. Plus precisement, ce texte tentera de demontrer prima facie que l'exploitation des enfants par le travail, a l'occasion du processus de production des biens importes, porte atteinte a la moralite publique du pays importateur. De ce fait, des mesures visant ces biens pourraient relever de l'application de l'article XX(a) du GATT, sous reserve de satisfaire a la condition de necessite de cette regle.

Introduction

I.  L'article XX(a) du GATT et le travail dangereux des
    enfants : une analyse jurisprudentielle et doctrinale
    A. La panee de l'article XX(a) du GATT du point de
       me de fa jurisprudence des organesjuridictionnels
       del'OMC
    B. L'article XX(a) du GATT et les droits des enfants
       au travail : une perspective doctrinale
II. L'analyse contextualisee de l'article XX(a) du GATT:
    le travail des dangereux des enfants du point de vue de
    la moralite publique canadienne

    A. Les droits de l'homme, les droits des enlimts et la
       moralite publique au Canada du point de me du
       systeme juridique et des politiques d'Etat
    B. Les droits de l'lionune, les droits des enfants et la
       moralite publique au Canada du point de me des
       religions majoritaires
Conclusion

Introduction

Suite a l'echec des tentatives de certains pays developpes en vue d'introduire une clause sociale d'origine conventionnelle dans le systeme de l'Organisation mondiale du commerce (OMC), il existe a present une polemique quant a l'existence d'une clause sociale implicite (1) dans le texte de l'Accord general sur les tarifs douaniers et le commerce (GATT) (2). Une telle clause permettrait de conditionner la jouissance des benefices decoulant du regime de liberalisation du commerce au respect des droits fondamentaux des travailleurs (3) dans les pays membres de l'OMC. En vertu de cette clause, un pays importateur pourrait eventuellement adopter des mesures restrictives du commerce, telles qu'une interdiction d'importation, en reponse a la transgression desdits droits lors de la production de biens. Du point de vue du regime general du GATT, la liceite de ce type de mesures semble controversee, compte tenu des exigences decoulant des articles III et XI de cet accord (4). …

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