Impact of Urbanization on the Livelihood of Farming Communities of Lubhoo Settlements the Case of Luboo VDC, Nepai
Karki, Madhura, Contributions to Nepalese Studies
Background to the Study
Lubhu, located in the eastern part of Lalitpur district of Kathmandu valley, holds a unique history in relation to its culture and economy. Many interesting stories prevail about Lubhoo regarding its nomenclature. The Newari word Lu means golden and Bhu means plate. It is connected with Lubhu's fertile land. Lubhu covers an area of 7.45 sq. kin. with 7000 estimated population. The major occupation is agriculture followed by other non-agricultural activities. Once renowned for agriculture and textile industry, Lubhu is undergoing a rapid transformation induced by urban intrusion. Increasing urban use of land is resulting in sharp decline in arable land in Lubhu Village Development Committee (VDC).
Following the establishment of brick factory in 1988 on the arable hinterland and fringe area of Lubhu VDC, lives of farming communities of ward number 6 and 9 have been highly affected. Albeit brick factory had occupied mere 30 ropanies of land area for its manufacturing purpose, excavation of soil from nearby and adjacent agricultural land taken in lease has caused these lands unsuitable for agricultural purpose. Certainly, the landowning households have adopted new livelihood strategies after selling their lands or giving in lease to the brick factory owner. On the other hand, steady expansion of land plotting for housing purpose following the change of location of brick factory, farming communities of ward 6 and 9 have come across changes in their livelihood patterns.
The aim of this paper is to explore the relationship between the process of urbanization and its impact on livelihood among the people living in Lubhu VDC of Lalitpur district, Nepal. It is based on a pilot survey conducted in an area of 100+ ropanis occupied by Yeti Brick Factory earlier, and now by private planning which includes wards of Tikathali 6 and Lubhu 9 within a period of thirty years. This paper has aimed at elucidating changes in the livelihood of Lubhu farmers brought about by urban infringement. It is concentrated upon ward number 6 and 9 of Lubhu VDC, facing three phases of urbanization within a period of thirty years.
The first section of the paper deals with the background to the study, research problem, conceptual framework and the objectives of the study. The second section of the paper deals with the research site and methodology. The third section of the paper focuses upon case studies and findings. Final section of the paper deals with over all findings, conclusions and recommendations.
Land Situation in Lubhoo
Before the brick factory was established, one could see the green farms producing regular agriculture like paddy, wheat and maize.
When brick factory was in existence the 100+ ropanis land was in industrial use providing services for locals and migrants.
After the brick factory was closed, the land brokers started planning and plotting of those lands previously occupied by the factory. It was sold to the migrants (mostly) but remained idle without any constructions. According to local farmers, these lands are unproductive and it was better earlier at least because the factory was providing jobs to both locals and migrants.
Along with the sharp decline in arable land and increase in urban land-use, Labhu's social constancy is subject to severe threat.
This paper also attempts to identify the affinity between urban agriculture and its influence over the livelihood of the area. Hereby, the research paper entails sociological enquiry on how livelihood changes along with the process of urbanization. As a whole, this paper incorporates certain issues related with Lubhu settlement.
Can urban farming done in the area be continued and still be a part of livelihood improvement of the farmers living in Lubhu which now falls under the purview of rapid conversion of agriculture land? …