An Anomaly of an Anomaly: Investigating the Cortical Electrophysiology of Remote Staring detection/Une Anomalie D'anomalie : Etude De L'electrophysiologie Corticale De la Detection Du Regard a Distance/ Anomalia De Una Anomalia:

By Baker, Ian S.; Stevens, Paul | The Journal of Parapsychology, Spring 2013 | Go to article overview

An Anomaly of an Anomaly: Investigating the Cortical Electrophysiology of Remote Staring detection/Une Anomalie D'anomalie : Etude De L'electrophysiologie Corticale De la Detection Du Regard a Distance/ Anomalia De Una Anomalia:


Baker, Ian S., Stevens, Paul, The Journal of Parapsychology


Remote staring detection has been defined as "... the purported ability to detect when one is being watched or stared at by someone situated beyond the range of the conventional senses." (Braud, Sharer, & Andrews, 1993a, p. 391). Remote staring detection involves the measurement of behavioural or physiological reactions in starees when stared at by a starer, even though it should be impossible for the starees to know through any conventional sensory means that the starer is staring at them at any particular moment. Belief in this phenomenon as an everyday experience is considerably widespread, with incidences of belief ranging from approximately 70% to 94% of the populations sampled (Braud et al., 1993a; Braud, Sharer, & Andrews, 1993b; Coover, 1913; Cottrell, Winer, & Smith, 1996; Rosenthal, Soper, & Tabony, 1994; Sheldrake, 2003; Thalbourne & Evans, 1992). Over the past 100 years there have been several attempts to examine these anecdotal experiences and beliefs under controlled conditions. The earliest research in this area used relatively simple and direct behavioural measures that demonstrated an evolution of methodological sophistication over time as greater controls over extraneous variables were introduced (Coover, 1913; Poortman, 1959; Titchener, 1898; Williams, 1983). The introduction of the use of electrodermal activity (EDA) as a measure of autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity and as a potential indicator of a "fight-or-flight" response to being stared at remotely was a significant methodological development. This was particularly the case when the EDA method was combined with the use of CCTV systems to separate the starer and staree (Braud et al., 1993a, 1993b). Collectively referred to as the "EDA-CCTV" studies (Baker, 2005), several researchers found interesting results utilizing this method, including potential skeptic-believer experimenter effects (Schlitz & LaBerge, 1994; Schlitz, Wiseman, Watt, & Radin, 2006; Watt, Schlitz, Wiseman, & Radin, 2005; Watt, Wiseman, & Schlitz, 2002; Wiseman & Schlitz, 1997, 1999; Wiseman & Smith, 1994, 1994). A meta-analysis (Schmidt, Schneider, Utts, & Walach, 2004) of the 15 EDA-CCTV experiments that had been conducted at that time found a small but significant effect (d = .13, p = .01), suggesting evidence that requires further investigation.

This was the primary objective of the research presented in this paper. Firstly, previous EDA-CCTV methods were expanded to include central nervous system (CNS) activity. It would be expected that, if this phenomenon is genuine, then any stimulus processing or awareness of a remote stare should result in corresponding activity in the brain. Secondly, it was important to embed the potential effect within a wider theoretical framework. Assuming that remote staring detection is producing brain activity as the information is processed, does this processing follow similar systems to those that have already been identified in cognitive neuroscience; for example, the processing of faces and/or the gaze of others?

The significance of various forms of eye-based nonverbal communication in humans has been long established in the social psychology literature (e.g., Argyle & Cook, 1976; Ellsworth, Carlsmith, & Henson, 1972; Kirkland & Lewis, 1976). The human eye has the largest ratio of exposed, white sclera to dark iris compared to any other primate (Kobayashi & Kohshima, 1997; Riccardelli, Baylis, & Driver, 2000), which appears to aid humans in being particularly sensitive to the detection of gaze and its direction (Itier, Van Roon, & Alain, 2011). The impact of the gaze of another also elevates electrodermal measures of arousal (Helminen, Kaasinen, & Hietanen, 2011; Leavitt & Donovan, 1979; McBride, King, & James, 1965; Nichols & Champness, 1971; Strom & Buck, 1979), which neatly correlates with the EDA-CCTV measures of remote staring detection mentioned previously. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

An Anomaly of an Anomaly: Investigating the Cortical Electrophysiology of Remote Staring detection/Une Anomalie D'anomalie : Etude De L'electrophysiologie Corticale De la Detection Du Regard a Distance/ Anomalia De Una Anomalia:
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.