Grey-Correlative-Degree Analysis of Influencing Factors of Women's Employment in China

By Lin, Yuan | Studies in Sociology of Science, June 1, 2013 | Go to article overview

Grey-Correlative-Degree Analysis of Influencing Factors of Women's Employment in China


Lin, Yuan, Studies in Sociology of Science


INTRODUCTION

After the foundation of the New China, China's female labor force participation rate (FLFPR) exceeded other countries and areas a lot (Zhang, 2002). But since the reform and opening to the outside world, controlling for the effects of the wider definition of employment in 1990, the FLFPR in China has fallen gradually, and the status of women has deteriorated relative to that of men both in terms of income and employment in the economic transition (Li & Gustafsson, 1999). Generally speaking, gender difference in China was narrowed by the government before the reform, which was more or less responsible for the decline in the position of women in employment and income.

China's employment regime is conducted into a market track during transition from planed economy to market economy. In this process, enterprises have a big say in employment, which influence female workers used to be under protection of employment policy in planed economy. Women's employment condition has changed a lot. Women's employment is a complicated social and economic problem. Women's employment is not only influenced by labor demand, such as knowledge, skill, experience and discrimination, but also influenced by labor supply that is relevant to women themselves, and labor supply will influence labor demand too. In market economy, enterprises will measure the cost and benefit of using female labor under the rule of maximum of profit. Because of physiologic and social factors, married women may cause losses to enterprises by reason of housework, pregnancy, childbearing and lactation. In this condition, enterprises always reduce female labor demand. Based on mechanism of grey-correlative-degree analysis, this paper chooses some factors influencing women employment and studies influencing degree of these factors. Based on which this paper gives some policy advices to promote women employment and construct harmonious labor market.

1. THEORETICAL ANALYSIS OF INFLUENCING FACTORS OF WOMEN'S EMPLOYMENT AND EXPLANATION ON MEASURING INDICATOR OF RELATED INFLUENCING FACTORS

There are many factors influencing women's employment, which can be divided into qualitative and quantitative aspects. In qualitative aspects, social prejudice, protection of law on women's employment, condition of household, physical conditions of women, the state of matrimony, conditions of jobs suitable for women, the time women spend on housework, human capital investment of women, and so no will influence women's employment. In quantitative aspects, wage, number of household members especially number of minor children, wage of other household members, family's income not from work, age and so on will influence women's employment too. This paper chooses the ratio of women's employment figures in urban enterprises to total employment figures in urban enterprises reflecting women's employment conditions, denoted as [X.sub.0]. To meet the demands of empirical analysis and data acquired, this paper chooses some influencing factors and their measuring indicators as follows.

1.1 Wage

According to traditional labor economic theory, when someone makes decision on labor supply, the essence is choosing to spend time on earning or leisure. Wage can be seen as the opportunity cost of leisure. When wage is increased, people will reduce the consumption of leisure to increase working hours because the relative price of leisure is increased. This is the substitution effect. But raising wage will increase income, and people can increase the consumption of leisure. That is the income effect. Wage level will influence all labor supply including women's labor supply. This paper chooses indices of real average wage of staff and workers ([X.sub.1]) reflecting wage level to analyze how wage influence women's employment.

1.2 Conditions of Jobs

It was generally acknowledged that there are many jobs in tertiary industry suitable for women and the development of tertiary industry will influence women's labor supply. …

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