Environmental Tax Reform Scenarios analysis/Analyza Scenaru Environmentalni Danove Reformy

By Fuchsova, Eva | E+M Ekonomie a Management, July 2013 | Go to article overview

Environmental Tax Reform Scenarios analysis/Analyza Scenaru Environmentalni Danove Reformy


Fuchsova, Eva, E+M Ekonomie a Management


Introduction

When looking for effective tools for the protection of the environment, the importance of economic instruments and their impact on the economy must not be overlooked. The triad--economics-- environment--energy, commonly identified as the E3, is no doubt one of the most dynamically developing areas even at the EU level. All measures taken on behalf of the protection and intensification of the growth of one "E" factor, also have implications for the other remaining policies. The following article proposes the evaluation of the environmental tax reform as an economic tool for all of the E3 sectors.

Northern European countries had already started to institute carbon taxes in various forms during the 1990s [8]. Later on, some countries in Western Europe also joined this trend, and the European Community adopted the Directive No. 2003/96/ES in 2003 harmonising the taxing of energy products from fossil fuels in all the member states. All of this thus energised the coordinated application of the environmental tax reform (ETR) within the entire Union. The revised wording of the Directive introduces the carbon tax whereby it takes into account its carbon dioxide content, in addition to the amount of energy it contains [7]. The Czech Republic commenced the application of the ETR application in 2008. It initially focused on the implementation of the Union Directive and then imposed an excise tax on fossil fuels. The reform will, it is assumed, be completed in 2017 when the carbon tax is supposed to be implemented in full.However, a scenario with a slower application pace with longer transition periods aimed at avoiding price shocks is also a distinct possibility [15].

This article deals with the possible ETR impacts on the C[O.sub.2] emmisions, the GDP and the employment situation in the Czech Republic. Three studies have been selected from a wide range of published articles: Ekins [3], the European Environment Agency (EEA) [6] and Scasny et al. [14]. These authors elaborated a range of different scenarios reflecting various oil-prices, carbon-prises, greenhouse gas emission targets, revenue recycling methods and scales of ETR. The main aim is to verify the conclusions of selected scenarios and outline prerequisites for the ETR implementation in the Czech Republic.

1. Methods and Previous Research

The ETR has been the focus of attention on the part of many researchers who have devoted their thoughts to various aspects of environmental taxes in their studies. Bosquet [1] has carried out an extensive analysis of the ETR double dividend. In addition to benefits in the environmental area, he sees the positive short-term impact on the employment rate and somewhat questionable influence on the production process, provided inflation is prevented in both cases. According to Ekins [4] and Speck [5], the ETR influence on the degree of competitiveness is positive because the future competitive advantage of the source arises from the application of low-carbon technologies. Miguel and Manzano [12] deal with the benefits resulting from the gradual and single-shot ETR reform. According to Kosonen [10], the frequently discussed regression tendency of environmental taxes is not necessarily a given. It depends on the intensity of transport taxation because it burdens more medium- and high-income households and thus the tax burden for low-income households caused by energy taxation thereby becomes partially neutralised.

Several methods are used for clarification purposes of the broad spectre of the ETR effects. CGE, E3ME and GINFORS models are the most widespread.

CGE (Computable General Equilibrium) modeling represents the traditional equilibrium-rationality theory of mainstream economics and serves as an analysis of resource allocation and income distribution issues in market economies. The model describes the interdependence among markets on numerous sets of equations. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited article

Environmental Tax Reform Scenarios analysis/Analyza Scenaru Environmentalni Danove Reformy
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this article
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.