Introductory and Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experiences within Campus-Based Influenza Clinics

By Conway, Susan E.; Johnson, Eric J. et al. | American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, April 2013 | Go to article overview

Introductory and Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experiences within Campus-Based Influenza Clinics


Conway, Susan E., Johnson, Eric J., Hagemann, Tracy M., American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education


INTRODUCTION

The role of pharmacists as vaccinators has been advancing, and since 2009, pharmacists in all 50 states are allowed to administer vaccinations. (1) Inaccessibility and inconvenience are common factors cited for poor vaccination rates in adults. (2-4) Pharmacists are uniquely positioned to impact vaccination rates because of their knowledge of medications, their integrated role in the healthcare system, and accessibility by the general public. Remarkably, an estimated 250 million people walk into a pharmacy each week. (5) Additionally, pharmacies often have expanded hours, favorable geographic locations, and generally do not require appointments (in contrast to physicians' offices). A Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) report showed that stores (eg, supermarkets or drug stores) were the second most common place for receipt of the 2011-2012 influenza vaccination among adults in the United States. (6) The CDC and Department of Health and Human Services acknowledged pharmacists for their tremendous efforts to raise immunization rates and requested continued efforts by pharmacists to promote and provide immunizations in their communities. (7)

This advancement in practice must be met by advancement in pharmacy education to prepare students to provide immunization advocacy and services upon graduation. Pharmacy curriculums typically include classroom education on vaccine-preventable diseases and laboratory training of vaccination administration techniques. When this training is provided early in the curriculum of a doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) program, students can practice skills and gain confidence in provision of immunization services on introductory pharmacy practice experiences (IPPEs). Colleges and schools that can develop and/or participate in immunization service initiatives can provide practice settings to help fulfill the current requirement that students obtain a minimum of 300 IPPE hours. (8) Such an activity addresses the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education Standard's performance competency for health and wellness and the Center for the Advancement of Pharmaceutical Education (CAPE) outcome for promotion of disease prevention in cooperation with patients, communities, at-risk populations, and other members of the interprofessional team. (8,9) We describe the development, implementation, and assessment of pharmacy practice experiences (PPE) integrated within campus-based influenza clinics. Additionally, we address challenges encountered and modifications after implementation.

DESIGN

The University of Oklahoma College of Pharmacy is part of a comprehensive health sciences center encompassing 7 colleges (pharmacy, medicine, dentistry, nursing, allied health, public health, and graduate), 2 hospitals, and numerous clinics. A traditional 4-year doctor of pharmacy program is delivered synchronously on 2 campuses. The college annually admits up to 80 students on the Oklahoma City campus and 40 students on the Tulsa campus. In addition to the classroom-based curriculum, the program requires 100 hours of IPPE per year for the first 3 years and 1,440 hours of advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs) in the fourth year. Year 1 and 2 (P1 and P2) students accumulate IPPE hours during 4-hour block assignments. Year 3 (P3) students complete an 80-hour practicum in the summer and a 20-hour assignment in the fall or spring. Year 4 (P4) students complete 9 practicums of 160 hours each. The distribution of IPPE assignments includes 55% in community practice, 30% in institutional practice, and 15% in specialty areas including voluntary service-learning activities. The classroom curriculum in the P2 year includes 4 hours of lectures and 4 hours of laboratory practicum on immunizations. This prepares students for practicing vaccination skills within IPPEs in the P3 year and APPEs in the P4 year. This is allowable under the Oklahoma Pharmacy Practice Act as students may administer vaccines under the direct supervision of an Oklahoma licensed pharmacist with an Oklahoma immunization permit. …

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