A Guided Interview Process to Improve Student Pharmacists' Identification of Drug Therapy Problems

By Rovers, John; Miller, Michael J. et al. | American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, February 2011 | Go to article overview

A Guided Interview Process to Improve Student Pharmacists' Identification of Drug Therapy Problems


Rovers, John, Miller, Michael J., Koenigsfeld, Carrie, Haack, Sally, Hegge, Karly, McCleeary, Erin, American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education


INTRODUCTION

Odedina and colleagues found that perceived behavioral control, behavioral intention, and past behaviors were important predictors of a pharmacist's intention to try to implement a more patient-centered practice. The authors called for future studies to operationalize "trying" behaviors to implement a new practice model. Instrumental acts and motivational processes form the steps involved in Trying Theory. (1) Instrumental acts consist of 3 implementation processes: (1) planning, (2) monitoring, and (3) guidance and control. In their conclusions, Odedina and colleagues recommended that training programs provide opportunities for pharmacists to gain "recent" experience in the desired, new practice to improve their self-efficacy, beliefs, and intentions to try to implement a patient-centered practice.

Pharmacists must gather patient-specific medical and drug histories competently, evaluate the data collected, identify and prioritize a patient's drug therapy problem(s), develop and implement a care plan, and monitor the outcomes achieved to practice patient-centered pharmacy. (2) These steps operationalize the implementation processes of planning, monitoring, and guidance and control. A guided interview process can be used to inculcate these skills in student pharmacists. Several practice tools, such as guided data collection forms, have been proposed to assist development of such expertise.

Documentation and screening tools have been published in both the peer-reviewed and non-peer-reviewed literature. (3-13) Collectively, these instruments are widely variable in their design and intended uses. Using a guided interview form may help student pharmacists gain confidence and competence in interviewing patients and identifying drug therapy problems. The model developed by Odedina and colleagues suggests that with repeated practice using a guided interview process, novice (eg, student) pharmacists will become more competent in such skills; however, there is a dearth of peer-reviewed evidence demonstrating the effectiveness of the guided interview process in facilitating the identification of drug therapy problems in experiential practice settings.

Integral to patient-centered pharmacy practice is the process of collecting a patient's history to find and resolve the 7 types of drug therapy problems: no indication for drug therapy; dosage too high; dosage too low; wrong drug (also referred to as ineffective drug); adverse drug reaction; inappropriate compliance; and needs additional drug therapy. (6,14) Teaching student pharmacists to identify and resolve drug therapy problems is relevant to both ambulatory and inpatient practice settings and is consistent with recent practice trends and requirements.

Medication therapy management services should include a systematic process of collecting patient-specific information, assessing drug therapy to identify medication-related problems, prioritizing such problems, and creating a care plan to resolve them. (15) In addition, Guideline 12.1 of the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education Accreditation Standards and Guidelines for the Professional Program in Pharmacy Leading to the Doctor of Pharmacy Degree states that "graduates are competent to provide patient-centered care, through the ability to design, implement, monitor, evaluate, and adjust pharmacy care plans that are patient-specific; address health literacy, cultural diversity, and behavioral psychosocial issues; and are evidence-based." (16) This study specifically measured agreement between the findings of student pharmacists using a guided interview process and those of experienced clinical pharmacists using their usual and customary practices to identify the presence of drug therapy problems in community-dwelling, older patients. As secondary objectives, student pharmacists' perceptions of the guided interview tool and patients' perceptions of pharmacists' interviews also were measured. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited article

A Guided Interview Process to Improve Student Pharmacists' Identification of Drug Therapy Problems
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this article
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.